• Reverse of an immelmann
  • Combining the first half of an aileron roll with the last half of a loop
  • Provides a rapid reversal of heading
  • To minimize loss of altitude, it is very important that you immediately pull and maintain optimum AoA after rolling inverted until 4.0-Gs

All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Stall/Aerobatic Checklist:

  • Cockpit: Clear of lose objects
  • Seat Belts: Locked and tight
  • Autoignition/Fuel Pump: On
  • Engine Instruments: Checked
  • Report: Stall/aerobatic checklist complete

Additional Considerations:

  • Ensure pockets are zipped and the map-case is secured to prevent loose items from going airborne


  1. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  2. Perform a clearing turn
  3. Begin the maneuver at 180 KIAS, on altitude, and lined up on a preeminent terrain feature or section line
  4. Pull the nose up 10-15° above the horizon, reduce the power to IDLE, and roll inverted using aileron and rudder
  5. Gently and expeditiously, pull to optimum AoA
  6. Maintain optimum AoA as airspeed increases by increasing back stick and maintain wings level along the reference
  7. When you reach 4.0-Gs hold 4.0-Gs for the remainder of the maneuver, until level going the opposite direction


  1. Give an instrument, gas, and position report (IGP)
  2. CONFIGURATION: aerobatic cruise
  3. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  4. CODES: 4700
  5. Perform a clearing turn
    • Roll out of the clearing turn on or parallel to a section line
    • Anticipate the section line to roll out on it vs. searching after your clearing turn
  6. IDLE: Reduce power to idle and maintain altitude, while slowing to 130 KIAS
    • Increase right rudder pressure as the aircraft decelerates
  7. STACKS: At 130 knots, raise the nose to place the exhaust stacks on the horizon, while keeping the wings level
  8. RELAX: Stop nose movement by relaxing back stick pressure
  9. RUDDER: direction of roll
    • Rudder application will be light or it will kick the tail out
  10. ROLL: lateral stick deflection in the direction of roll
  11. Once inverted, neutralize the ailerons and apply slight forward stick pressure to momentarily maintain straight and level flight
  12. Quickly verify that the wings are level by referencing the horizon and correct as necessary
  13. Apply back stick pressure, pulling the nose through the horizon and flying the aircraft along the section line as in the last half of the loop
    • Expect 1,500' loss of altitude
    • Decrease right rudder pressure as the aircraft accelerates to recovery speed
    • ICS: "Oil pressure is..." (checking within limits)
  14. Reset aerobatic cruise power

Common Errors:

  • Pulling too hard for the first 90° or not hard enough, when transitioning from the AoA to G