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Chandelle

Introduction:

  • Develops the pilot's coordination, orientation, planning and feel for maximum performance flight
  • Develops positive control techniques at varying airspeeds and altitudes
  • Maximum performance climbing turn beginning from straight-and-level flight and ending 180° wings level, nose high at Minimum Controllable Airspeed (MCA)
  • Atmospheric conditions will effect altitude gained, the altitude is not what matters however
  • The farther away the reference points, the more accurate
  • Torque effect will become more prominent through the maneuver
  • Right turn: Roll out can be done primarily with the right rudder
  • Left turn: Roll out can be done primarily with left aileron
  • You should hear the stall warning horn if at minimum controllable airspeed

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


C-172S Procedure:

  1. Perform clearing turns
  2. Enter the maneuver at 105 KIAS (~2350 RPM)
  3. Pick a 90°, right off the wing tip
    • Prominent visual reference points will help you keep situational awareness throughout the maneuver
    • The farther away, the more accurate and steady it will be
  4. Initiate a roll into a 30° bank in the direction of the reference point
  5. After the bank is established, initiate a climbing turn by smoothly applying elevator back-pressure to increase the pitch attitude, and apply full power
  6. While maintaining a 30° bank, continue increasing the pitch attitude at a constant rate so as to attain the highest pitch altitude (approx. 8-10°) at the 90° point (reference point) in he turn
  7. At the 90° point in the turn, maintain the pitch attitude by continuing to increase back-pressure (due to decreasing airspeed) and initiate a slow rate of roll-out so as to arrive at the 180° point with the wings level (reference point off from the opposite wing) and at minimum controllable airspeed (stall warning)
  8. To recover, maintain the heading while decreasing the pitch attitude, allowing the airplane to accelerate while maintaining the last altitude attained
  9. As cruise airspeed is attained, set cruise power, 2350 RPM
    • Re-trim as necessary
  10. Complete cruise checklist

Lazy Eight
Figure 1: Airplane Flying Handbook, Chandelle

Common Errors:

  • Failure to adequately clear the area
  • Too shallow an initial bank, resulting in a stall
  • Too steep an initial bank, resulting in failure to gain maximum performance
  • Allowing the actual bank to increase after establishing initial bank angle
  • Failure to start the recovery at the 90° point in the turn
  • Allowing the pitch attitude to increase as the bank is rolled out during the second 90° of turn
  • Removing all of the bank before the 180° point is reached
  • Nose low on recovery, resulting in too much airspeed
  • Control roughness
  • Poor coordination (slipping or skidding)
  • Stalling at any point during the maneuver
  • Execution of a steep turn instead of a climbing maneuver
  • Failure to scan for other aircraft
  • Attempting to perform the maneuver by instrument reference rather than visual reference

Practical Test Standards/Airman Certification Standards:


References: