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Instrument Approach Procedures
Lesson Plans

Introduction:

Instrument Approach Procedures:

  • Nonprecision Approach Procedures:

    • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section VI, Task A by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with performing nonprecision approach procedures

    Knowledge:

    The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
    • IR.VI.A.K1:
      Procedures and limitations associated with a nonprecision approach, including the differences between Localizer Performance (LP) and Lateral Navigation (LNAV) approach guidance
    • IR.VI.A.K2:
      Navigation system annunciations expected during an RNAV approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Risk Management:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
    • IR.VI.A.R1:
      Failure to follow prescribed procedures (e.g., to prevent descending below the minimum descent altitude (MDA) without proper visual references)
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.A.R2:
      Deteriorating weather conditions on approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.A.R3:
      An unstable approach, including excessive descent rates
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.A.R4:
      Failure to ensure proper aircraft configuration during an approach and missed approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.A.R5:
      Failure to manage automated navigation and auto flight systems
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Skills:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
    • IR.VI.A.S1:
      Accomplish the appropriate nonprecision instrument approaches as selected by the evaluator
    • IR.VI.A.S2:
      Establish two-way communications with ATC, as appropriate, to the phase of flight or approach segment, and uses proper communication phraseology
    • IR.VI.A.S3:
      Select, tune, identify, and confirm the operational status of navigation equipment to be used for the approach
    • IR.VI.A.S4:
      Comply with all clearances issued by ATC or the evaluator
    • IR.VI.A.S5:
      Recognize if any flight instrumentation is inaccurate or inoperative, and take appropriate action
    • IR.VI.A.S6:
      Advise ATC or the evaluator of any inability to comply with a clearance
    • IR.VI.A.S7:
      Establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed considering turbulence and wind shear, and complete the aircraft checklist items appropriate to the phase of the flight
    • IR.VI.A.S8:
      Maintain altitude within ±100 feet, heading within ±10°, and maintain airspeed within ±10 knots prior to beginning the final approach segment
    • IR.VI.A.S9:
      Apply adjustments to the published MDA and visibility criteria for the aircraft approach category when required (e.g., by NOTAMs, inoperative aircraft and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment, National Weather Service (NWS) reporting factors and criteria)
    • IR.VI.A.S10:
      Establish a stabilized approach with a rate of descent and track that will ensure arrival at the MDA prior to reaching the missed approach point (MAP)
    • IR.VI.A.S11:
      Maintain no more than a 3/4-scale deflection of the CDI, and maintain airspeed within ±10 knots of desired value while on the final approach segment
    • IR.VI.A.S12:
      Maintain the MDA, when reached, within +100 feet, −0 feet to the MAP
    • IR.VI.A.S13:
      Execute the missed approach procedure when the required visual references for the intended runway are not distinctly visible and identifiable at the MAP
    • IR.VI.A.S14:
      Execute a normal landing from a straight-in or circling approach when instructed by the evaluator
    • IR.VI.A.S15:
      Use an MFD and other graphical navigation displays, if installed, to monitor position, track wind drift and other parameters to maintain desired flightpath
  • Precision Approach Procedures:

    • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section VI, Task B by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with performing precision approach procedures

    Knowledge:

    The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
    • IR.VI.B.K1:
      Procedures and limitations associated with a precision approach, including determining required descent rates and adjusting minimums in the case of inoperative equipment

    Risk Management:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
    • IR.VI.B.R1:
      Failure to immediately initiate the missed approach at Decision Altitude (DA)/Decision Height (DH) if the required visual references are not visible
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.B.R2:
      Deteriorating weather conditions on approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.B.R3:
      An unstable approach including excessive descent rates
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.B.R4:
      Failure to ensure proper aircraft configuration during an approach and missed approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.B.R5:
      Failure to manage automated navigation and auto flight systems
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Skills:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
    • IR.VI.B.S1:
      Conduct the precision instrument approach(es) selected by the examiner
    • IR.VI.B.S2:
      Establish two-way communications with ATC appropriate for the phase of flight or approach segment, and use proper communication phraseology
    • IR.VI.B.S3:
      Select, tune, identify, and confirm the operational status of navigation equipment to be used for the approach procedure
    • IR.VI.B.S4:
      Comply with all clearances issued by ATC or the evaluator
    • IR.VI.B.S5:
      Recognize if any flight instrumentation is inaccurate or inoperative, and take appropriate action
    • IR.VI.B.S6:
      Advise ATC or the evaluator of any inability to comply with a clearance
    • IR.VI.B.S7:
      Establish the appropriate aircraft configuration and airspeed considering turbulence and wind shear, and complete the aircraft checklist items appropriate to the phase of the flight
    • IR.VI.B.S8:
      Maintain altitude within ±100 feet, heading within ±10°, and maintain airspeed within ±10 knots prior to beginning the final approach segment
    • IR.VI.B.S9:
      Apply adjustments to the published DA/DH and visibility criteria for the aircraft approach category when required (e.g., by NOTAMs, Inoperative aircraft and ground navigation equipment, inoperative visual aids associated with the landing environment, NWS reporting factors and criteria)
    • IR.VI.B.S10:
      Establish a predetermined rate of descent at the point where vertical guidance begins, which approximates that required for the aircraft to correctly follow the vertical guidance
    • IR.VI.B.S11:
      Maintain a stabilized final approach from the Final Approach Fix (FAF) to DA/DH allowing no more than 3/4-scale deflection of either the vertical or lateral guidance indications and maintain the desired airspeed within ±10 knots
    • IR.VI.B.S12:
      Immediately initiate the missed approach when at the DA/DH, and the required visual references for the runway are not unmistakably visible and identifiable
    • IR.VI.B.S13:
      Transition to a normal landing approach (missed approach for seaplanes) only when the aircraft is in a position from which a descent to a landing on the runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvering
    • IR.VI.B.S14:
      Maintain vertical and lateral guidance within 3/4-scale deflection of the indicators during the visual descent from DA/DH to a point over the runway where vertical or lateral guidance must be abandoned to accomplish a normal landing
    • IR.VI.B.S15:
      Use an MFD and other graphical navigation displays, if installed, to monitor position, track wind drift and other parameters to maintain desired flightpath
  • Missed Approach Lesson Plans:

    • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section VI, Task C by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with performing a missed approach

    Knowledge:

    The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
    • IR.VI.C.K1:
      Elements related to missed approach procedures and limitations associated with standard instrument approaches, including while using a FMS and/or autopilot, if equipped
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Risk Management:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
    • IR.VI.C.R1:
      Failure to follow prescribed procedures
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.C.R2:
      Holding, diverting, or electing to fly the approach again
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.C.R3:
      Failure to ensure proper aircraft configuration during an approach and missed approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.C.R4:
      Factors that might lead to executing a missed approach procedure before the missed approach point or to a go-around below DA/MDA
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.C.R5:
      Failure to manage automated navigation and auto flight systems
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Skills:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
    • IR.VI.C.S1:
      Initiate the missed approach promptly by applying power, establishing a climb attitude, and reducing drag in accordance with the aircraft manufacturer’s recommendations
    • IR.VI.C.S2:
      Report to ATC upon beginning the missed approach procedure
    • IR.VI.C.S3:
      Comply with the published or alternate missed approach procedure
    • IR.VI.C.S4:
      Advise ATC or the evaluator of any inability to comply with a clearance, restriction, or climb gradient
    • IR.VI.C.S5:
      Follow the recommended checklist items appropriate to the missed approach/go-around procedure
    • IR.VI.C.S6:
      Request, if appropriate, ATC clearance to the alternate airport, clearance limit, or as directed by the evaluator
    • IR.VI.C.S7:
      Maintain the recommended airspeed within ±10 knots; heading, course, or bearing within ±10°; and altitude(s) within ±100: feet during the missed approach procedure
    • IR.VI.C.S8:
      Use an MFD and other graphical navigation displays, if installed, to monitor position and track to help navigate the missed approach
    • IR.VI.C.S9:
      Demonstrate SRM
  • Circling Approach Lesson Plans:

    • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section VI, Task D by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with performing a circling approach procedure

    Knowledge:

    The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
    • IR.VI.D.K1:
      Elements related to circling approach procedures and limitations including approach categories and related airspeed restrictions
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Risk Management:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
    • IR.VI.D.R1:
      Failure to follow prescribed circling approach procedures
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R2:
      Executing a circling approach at night and/or with marginal visibility
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R3:
      Losing visual contact with an identifiable part of the airport
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R4:
      Failure to manage automated navigation and auto flight systems
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R5:
      Failure to maintain an appropriate airspeed while circling
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R6:
      Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.D.R7:
      Executing an improper missed approach after the MAP while circling
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Skills:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
    • IR.VI.D.S1:
      Select and comply with the circling approach procedure considering turbulence, wind shear, and the maneuvering capabilities of the aircraft
    • IR.VI.D.S2:
      Confirm the direction of traffic and adhere to all restrictions and instructions issued by ATC or the evaluator
    • IR.VI.D.S3:
      Avoid circling beyond visibility requirements and maintain the appropriate circling altitude until in a position from which a descent to a normal landing can be made
    • IR.VI.D.S4:
      Maneuver the aircraft after reaching the MDA on a flightpath that will permit a normal landing on a runway
    • IR.VI.D.S5:
      Maintain altitude +100 feet, -0 feet until a descent to a normal landing can be made. The runway selected must require at least a 90° change of direction from the final approach course to align the aircraft for landing
    • IR.VI.D.S6:
      Demonstrate SRM
  • Landing From an Instrument Approach Lesson Plans:

    • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section VI, Task E by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with performing the procedures for a landing from an instrument approach

    Knowledge:

    The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

    Risk Management:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
    • IR.VI.E.R1:
      Attempting to land from an unstable approach
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.E.R2:
      Flying below the glidepath
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan
    • IR.VI.E.R3:
      Transitioning from instrument to visual references for landing
      • Information
      • Lesson Plan

    Skills:

    The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
    • IR.VI.E.S1:
      Transition at the DA/DH, MDA, or visual descent point VDP to a visual flight condition, allowing for safe visual maneuvering and a normal landing
    • IR.VI.E.S2:
      Adhere to all ATC or evaluator advisories, such as NOTAMs, wind shear, wake turbulence, runway surface, braking conditions, and other operational considerations
    • IR.VI.E.S3:
      Complete the appropriate checklist items for the pre-landing and landing phase
    • IR.VI.E.S4:
      Maintain positive aircraft control throughout the complete landing maneuver
    • IR.VI.E.S5:
      Demonstrate SRM

Conclusion:

  • To learn more about earning your instrument rating, visit the checkride page

References:

  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-2) Risk Management Handbook
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-25) Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • 14 CFR parts 61, 91
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-15) Instrument Flying Handbook
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-16) Instrument Procedures Handbook
  • IAP