Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers
Lesson Plans

Steep Turns:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with steep turns
  • Note: See Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.V.A.K1:

    Purpose of steep turns
  • PA.V.A.K2:

    Aerodynamics associated with steep turns, to include:
    • PA.V.A.K2a:
      Coordinated and uncoordinated flight
    • PA.V.A.K2b:
      Overbanking tendencies
    • PA.V.A.K2c:
      Maneuvering speed, including the impact of weight changes
    • PA.V.A.K2d:
      Load factor and accelerated stalls
    • PA.V.A.K2e:
      Rate and radius of turn

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.V.A.R1:

    Failure to divide attention between airplane control and orientation
  • PA.V.A.R2:

    Collision hazards, to include aircraft and terrain
  • PA.V.A.R3:

    Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT
  • PA.V.A.R4:

    Distractions, improper task management, loss of situational awareness, or disorientation
  • PA.V.A.R5:

    Failure to maintain coordinated flight

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.V.A.S1:

    Clear the area
  • PA.V.A.S3:

    Roll into a coordinated 360° steep turn with approximately a 45° bank
  • PA.V.A.S4:

    Perform the Task in the opposite direction, as specified by evaluator
  • PA.V.A.S5:

    Maintain the entry altitude ±100 feet, airspeed ±10 knots, bank ±5 degrees, and roll out on the entry heading ±10°

Ground Reference Maneuvers:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with ground reference maneuvering which may include a rectangular course, Sturns, and turns around a point
  • Note: See Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations
  • References: 14 CFR part 61; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.V.B.K1:

    Purpose of ground reference maneuvers
  • PA.V.B.K2:

    Effects of wind on ground track and relation to a ground reference point
  • PA.V.B.K3:

    Effects of bank angle and groundspeed on rate and radius of turn
  • PA.V.B.K4:

    Relationship of rectangular course to airport traffic pattern

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.V.B.R1:

    Failure to divide attention between airplane control and orientation
  • PA.V.B.R2:

    Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires
  • PA.V.B.R3:

    Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT
  • PA.V.B.R4:

    Distractions, improper task management, loss of situational awareness, or disorientation
  • PA.V.B.R5:

    Failure to maintain coordinated flight

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.V.B.S1:

    Clear the area
  • PA.V.B.S2:

    Select a suitable ground reference area, line, or point as appropriate
  • PA.V.B.S3:

    Plan the maneuver: (the evaluator must select at least one maneuver for the applicant to demonstrate)
    • PA.V.B.S3a:

      Rectangular course: enter a left or right pattern, 600 to 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL) at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area, 45° to the downwind leg
    • PA.V.B.S3b:

      S-turns: enter perpendicular to the selected reference line, 600 to 1,000 feet AGL at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area
    • PA.V.B.S3c:

      Turns around a point: enter at an appropriate distance from the reference point, 600 to 1,000 feet AGL at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area
  • PA.V.B.S4:

    Apply adequate wind-drift correction during straight and turning flight to maintain a constant ground track around a rectangular reference area, or to maintain a constant radius turn on each side of a selected reference line or point
  • PA.V.B.S5:

    If performing S-Turns, reverse the turn directly over the selected reference line; if performing turns around a point, complete turns in either direction, as specified by the evaluator
  • PA.V.B.S6:

    Divide attention between airplane control, traffic avoidance and the ground track while maintaining coordinated flight
  • PA.V.B.S7:

    Maintain altitude ±100 feet; maintain airspeed ±10 knots

References:

  • 14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-2) Risk Management Handbook
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-25) Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Navigation Charts
  • U.S. Chart Supplements
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Notice to Airman