Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers
Lesson Plans

Steep Turns:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with steep turns
  • Note: See Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM


The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.V.A.K1:

    Purpose of steep turns
  • PA.V.A.K2:

    Aerodynamics associated with steep turns, to include:
    • PA.V.A.K2a:
      Coordinated and uncoordinated flight
    • PA.V.A.K2b:
      Overbanking tendencies
    • PA.V.A.K2c:
      Maneuvering speed, including the impact of weight changes
    • PA.V.A.K2d:
      Load factor and accelerated stalls
    • PA.V.A.K2e:
      Rate and radius of turn

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.V.A.R1:

    Failure to divide attention between airplane control and orientation
  • PA.V.A.R2:

    Collision hazards, to include aircraft and terrain
  • PA.V.A.R3:

    Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT
  • PA.V.A.R4:

    Distractions, improper task management, loss of situational awareness, or disorientation
  • PA.V.A.R5:

    Failure to maintain coordinated flight


The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.V.A.S1:

    Clear the area
  • PA.V.A.S3:

    Roll into a coordinated 360° steep turn with approximately a 45° bank
  • PA.V.A.S4:

    Perform the Task in the opposite direction, as specified by evaluator
  • PA.V.A.S5:

    Maintain the entry altitude ±100 feet, airspeed ±10 knots, bank ±5 degrees, and roll out on the entry heading ±10°


  • 14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-2) Risk Management Handbook
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-25) Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Navigation Charts
  • U.S. Chart Supplements
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Notice to Airman