Taxiing Lesson Plan


  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a forward-slip to a landing
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM; AIM


  • Research a case study
  • Discuss how the initial conditions set conditions which developed into an incident/accident/mishap
  • Relate similar personal experience of the same type of incident/accident/mishap


  • Having just started the aircraft and completed the required checklists, the pilot is ready to put the aircraft in motion
  • Taxiing is that movement of an aircraft while on the ground, under its own power
  • Taxiing is accomplished primarily through the use of the rudder and brakes however, pilots are also required to mitigate the impacts of wind
  • Since movement on an airport's surface involves coordination, clearances requirements/coordination are required to operate
  • With the basics in mind, pilots execute Taxi Procedures as they move about an airport's surface area
  • While the movement of the aircraft is our primary concern, there remain some checklist items we must accomplish to prepare/close-out an operation
  • Finally, while taxiing seems straight forward, it can also be an art, with best practices that can help pilots
  • Once your engine has started you must be aware of what you're doing and keep a visual scan, your "flight" has begun
    • It may be required initially to tow the aircraft before engines are started to be safe


Review (quiz):
Case Studies:
Total Ground Time:

Required Materials:

  • Paper, Pen, Marker, Whiteboard

Instructor Actions:

Student Actions:

  • Complete assigned reading (see content above)
  • Ask pertinent questions

Taxiing Completion/Airman Certification Standards:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with safe taxi operations, including runway incursion avoidance
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM; AC 91-73; Chart Supplements; AIM

Taxiing (ASEL, AMEL) Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.II.D.K1:

    Current airport aeronautical references and information resources such as the Chart Supplement, airport diagram, and NOTAMS
  • PA.II.D.K2:

    Taxi instructions/clearances
  • PA.II.D.K3:

    Airport markings and signs informationAirport markings, signs, and lights
  • PA.II.D.K4:

    Visual indicators for wind
  • PA.II.D.K5:

    Aircraft lighting
  • PA.II.D.K6:

    Procedures for:
    • PA.II.D.K6a:
      Appropriate flight deck activities prior to taxi, including route planning and identifying the location of Hot Spots
    • PA.II.D.K6b:
      Radio communications at towered and nontowered airports
    • PA.II.D.K6c:
      Entering or crossing runways
    • PA.II.D.K6d:
      Night taxi operations
    • PA.II.D.K6e:
      Low visibility taxi operations

Taxiing (ASEL, AMEL) Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.II.D.R1:

    Inappropriate activities and distractions
  • PA.II.D.R2:

    Confirmation or expectation bias as related to taxi instructions
  • PA.II.D.R3:

    A taxi route or departure runway change

Taxiing (ASEL, AMEL) Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.II.D.S1:

    Receive and correctly read back clearances/instructions, if applicable
  • PA.II.D.S2:

    Use an airport diagram or taxi chart during taxi, if published, and maintain situational awareness
  • PA.II.D.S3:

    Position the flight controls for the existing wind
  • PA.II.D.S4:

    Complete the appropriate checklist
  • PA.II.D.S5:

    Perform a brake check immediately after the airplane begins moving
  • PA.II.D.S6:

    Maintain positive control of the airplane during ground operations by controlling direction and speed without excessive use of brakes
  • PA.II.D.S7:

    Comply with airport/taxiway markings, signals, and ATC clearances and instructions
  • PA.II.D.S8:

    Position the airplane properly relative to hold lines



  • Advise students that this lesson will be used as a starting point for the next lesson
  • Assign study materials for the next lesson