Private Pilot Airplane Lesson Plans

Introduction:

Private Pilot Airplane Practical Test Prerequisites:1

  • An applicant for the Private Pilot-Airplane Practical Test is required by 14 CFR part 61 to:
    1. Be at least 17 years of age;
    2. Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language
      • If there is a doubt, use AC 60-28, English Language Skill Standards;
    3. Have passed the appropriate private pilot knowledge test since the beginning of the 24th month before the month in which he or she takes the practical test;
    4. Have satisfactorily accomplished the required training and obtained the aeronautical experience prescribed;
    5. Possess at least a current third class medical certification or when a military pilot of the U.S. Armed Forces can show and present evidence of an up-to-date medical examination authorizing pilot status issued by the U.S. Armed Forces;
    6. Have an endorsement from an authorized instructor certifying that the applicant has received and logged training time within two (2) calendar months preceding the date of application in preparation for the practical test, and is prepared for the practical test;
    7. Receive and log ground training from an authorized instructor or complete a home-study course on the aeronautical knowledge areas of 14 CFR part 61.105 paragraph (b) that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought; and
    8. Also have an endorsement certifying that the applicant has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in which the applicant was deficient on the airman knowledge test (not required for power aircraft to non-power aircraft or power aircraft to power aircraft for additional category or class rating)

Aircraft and Equipment Required for the Practical Test:

  • The private pilot-airplane applicant is required by 14 CFR section 61.45 to provide an airworthy, certificated aircraft for use during the practical test. This section further requires that the aircraft must:
    1. Be of U.S., foreign, or military registry of the same category, class, and type, if applicable, for the certificate and/or rating for which the applicant is applying;
    2. Have fully functioning dual controls, except as provided for in 14 CFR section 61.45(c) and (e); and
    3. Be capable of performing all Areas of Operation appropriate to the rating sought and have no operating limitations, which prohibit its use in any of the Areas of Operation, required for the practical test

Flight Instructor Responsibility:

  • An appropriately rated flight instructor is responsible for training the private pilot applicant to acceptable standards in ALL subject matter areas, procedures, and maneuvers included in the Tasks within each Area of Operation in the appropriate private pilot practical test standard, even if the applicant is adding a category or class rating
  • Because of the impact of their teaching activities in developing safe, proficient pilots, flight instructors should exhibit a high level of knowledge, skill, and the ability to impart that knowledge and skill to students
  • Throughout the applicant's training, the flight instructor is responsible for emphasizing the performance of effective visual scanning, collision avoidance procedures, the manufacturer's recommended procedures for the airplane flown, and other areas deemed appropriate to the practical test

Examiner Responsibility:

  • The examiner conducting the practical test is responsible for determining that the applicant meets the acceptable standards of knowledge and skill of each Task within the appropriate practical test standard
  • Since there is no formal division between the "oral" and "skill" portions of the practical test, this becomes an ongoing process throughout the test. Oral questioning, to determine the applicant's knowledge of Tasks and related safety factors, should be used judiciously at all times, especially during the flight portion of the practical test
  • Examiners shall test to the greatest extent practicable the applicant's correlative abilities rather than mere rote enumeration of facts throughout the practical test
  • If the examiner determines that a Task is incomplete, or the outcome uncertain, the examiner may require the applicant to repeat that Task, or portions of that Task
  • This provision has been made in the interest of fairness and does not mean that instruction, practice, or the repeating of an unsatisfactory task is permitted during the certification process. When practical, the remaining Tasks of the practical test phase should be completed before repeating the questionable Task
  • On multiengine practical tests, where the failure of the most critical engine after liftoff is required, the examiner must give consideration to local atmospheric conditions, terrain, and type of aircraft used
  • However, the failure of an engine shall not be simulated until attaining at least VSSE/VXSE/VYSE and at an altitude not lower than 400 feet AGL
  • During simulated engine failures on multiengine practical tests, the examiner shall set zero thrust after the applicant has simulated feathering the propeller
  • The examiner shall require the applicant to demonstrate at least one landing with a simulated-feathered propeller with the engine set to zero thrust
  • The feathering of one propeller shall be demonstrated in flight, unless the manufacturer prohibits the intentional feathering of the propellers during flight
  • Throughout the flight portion of the practical test, the examiner shall evaluate the applicant's use of visual scanning and collision avoidance procedures

Satisfactory Performance:

  • Per 14 CFR part 61, section 61.43, satisfactory performance requires that the applicant:
    • Demonstrate the Tasks specified in the Areas of Operation for the certificate or rating sought within the established standards;
    • Demonstrate mastery of the aircraft by performing each Task successfully;
    • Demonstrate proficiency and competency in accordance with the approved standards;
    • Demonstrate sound judgment and exercise aeronautical decision-making/risk management; and
    • The applicant is expected to demonstrate competence in resource management (CRM/SRM) appropriate to the aircraft and Tasks
  • Satisfactory performance will result in the issuance of a temporary certificate

Unsatisfactory Performance:

  • Typical areas of unsatisfactory performance and grounds for disqualification include:
    1. • Any action or lack of action by the applicant that requires corrective intervention by the evaluator to maintain safe flight
    2. Failure to use proper and effective visual scanning techniques to clear the area before and while performing maneuvers
    3. Consistently exceeding tolerances stated in the skill elements of the Task
    4. Failure to take prompt corrective action when tolerances are exceeded
    5. Failure to exercise risk management
  • If, in the judgment of the evaluator, the applicant does not meet the standards for any Task, the applicant fails the Task and associated Area of Operation
    • The test is unsatisfactory, and the evaluator issues a Notice of Disapproval
    • The evaluator lists the Area(s) of Operation in which the applicant did not meet the standard, any Area(s) of Operation not tested, and the number of practical test failures
    • The evaluator should also list the Tasks failed or Tasks not tested within any unsatisfactory or partially completed Area(s) of Operation
    • If the applicant's inability to meet English language requirements contributed to the failure of a Task, the evaluator must note "English Proficiency" on the Notice of Disapproval
  • The evaluator or the applicant may end the test if the applicant fails a Task
    • . The evaluator may continue the test only with the consent of the applicant
    • The applicant is entitled to credit only for those Areas of Operation and the associated Tasks performed satisfactorily

Letter of Discontinuance:

  • When a practical test is discontinued for reasons other than unsatisfactory performance (i.e., equipment failure, weather, illness), the FAA Form 8710-1, Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application, and, if applicable, the Airman Knowledge Test Report, is returned to the applicant
  • The examiner then must prepare, sign, and issue a Letter of Discontinuance to the applicant
  • The Letter of Discontinuance must identify the Areas of Operation and their associated Tasks of the practical test that were successfully completed
  • The applicant will be advised that the Letter of Discontinuance must be presented to the examiner, to receive credit for the items successfully completed, when the practical test is resumed, and made part of the certification file

Private Pilot Airplane Airman Certification Standards/Lesson Plans:

  1. Preflight Preparation:

  2. Preflight Procedures:

  3. Airport and Seaplane Base Operations:

  4. Takeoffs, Landing and Go-Arounds:

  5. Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers:

  6. Slow Flight and Stalls:

  7. Basic Instrument Maneuvers:

    • Task A. Straight-and-Level Flight
    • Task B. Constant Airspeed Climbs
    • Task C. Constant Airspeed Descents
    • Task D. Turns to Headings
    • Task E. Recovery from Unusual Flight Attitudes
    • Task F. Radio Communications, Navigation Systems/Facilities, and Radar Services
  8. Emergency Operations:

    • Task A. Emergency Descent
    • Task B. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL, ASES)
    • Task C. Systems and Equipment Malfunction
    • Task D. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear
    • Task E. Engine Failure During Takeoff Before VMC (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)
    • Task F. Engine Failure After Lift-Off (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)
    • Task G. Approach and Landing with an Inoperative Engine (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)
  9. Multiengine Operations:

    • Task A. Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative (AMEL, AMES)
    • Task B. VMC Demonstration (AMEL, AMES)
    • Task C. Engine Failure During Flight (by reference to instruments) (AMEL, AMES)
    • Task D. Instrument Approach and Landing with an Inoperative Engine (Simulated) (by reference to instruments) (AMEL, AMES)
  10. Night Operations:

    • Task A. Night Preparation
  11. Postflight Procedures:

    • Task A. After Landing, Parking and Securing (ASEL, AMEL)
    • Task B. Seaplane Post-Landing Procedures (ASES, AMES)

Conclusion:

References: