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Cross-Control Stalls

Introduction:

  • Stalls do NOT occur without warning
    • While flying along in cruise flight, a stall will not rip the airplane out of the sky and throw it uncontrollably to the ground to a big smoking crater
  • Cross-control stalls emphasize the importance of using coordinated control pressures whenever making turns
  • Most apt to occur during a poorly planned and executed base-to-final approach turn

Stall Avoidance

  • Avoid flying at minimum airspeeds
  • Remain in the normal flight envelope
  • Avoid abrupt maneuvers

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


Cross-Controlled Stall Procedure:

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


  1. Select an altitude where recovery will occur no lower than 1500' AGL
  2. Commence a clearing turn
  3. Maintain altitude until reaching a typical approach speed, and then establish a stabilize descent (trimmed) to simulate a normal approach to landing
  4. Descending no lower than 200' from the entry altitude, simultaneously reduce power to idle and pick a reference point off the le5ft or right wing tip
  5. Turn towards the reference point using a 25-30° bank while:
    • Simultaneously applying excessive rudder pressure in the direction of turn (thereby accelerating the speed of outer wing)
    • Using opposite aileron to prevent over-banking (maintain a constant 25-30° bank) during the turn, and
    • Increasing elevator back-pressure to keep the nose from lowering and to achieve 11-12° pitch up
  6. At the imminent stall, callout, "stalling," reduce the angle of attack to regain control effectiveness, and apply full power
  7. Maintain coordinated use of the ailerons and rudder to level the wings and prevent entering into a spin
  8. Adjust pitch to the Vx attitude and minimize altitude loss
    • Retrim as necessary
  9. Complete cruise checklist
    • Note that completion of the maneuver should occur by the 90° reference point and before full deflection of the rudder and aileron

Common Errors:

  • Failure to adequately clear the area
  • Failure to establish the specified landing gear and flap configuration prior to entry (usually flaps up to avoid exceeding VFE
  • Improper pitch, heading, and bank control during straight ahead stalls
  • Use outside and instrument references
  • Right rudder in nose-high power-on condition; release at break
  • Improper pitch and bank control during turning stalls
  • Rough or uncoordinated control technique
  • Failure to recognize the first indications of a stall
  • Failure to achieve a stall
  • Improper torque correction
  • Poor stall recognition and delayed recovery
  • Excessive altitude loss or excessive airspeed during recovery
  • Secondary stall during recovery

Airman Certification Standards:

Conclusion:

  • It is important to note that individual aircraft may have stall characteristics unique to them due to bends/twists which develop in the airframe over time depending on their use

References: