All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
- Ensure the before takeoff checklists are complete
- Check Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS), wind direction indicators, as available, and listen to the wind call given by ATC when issuing the takeoff clearances
- Call for takeoff clearance
- Controlled Airfield:
- Air Traffic Control (ATC) will issue a takeoff clearance
- ATC: "[Callsign], [Wind], cleared for takeoff [Runway]"
- Example: "Cessna One Seven Two Seven Victor, wind two seven zero at one zero, cleared for takeoff runway two six"
- Uncontrolled Airfield:
- A clearance will not be issued so you must announce your intentions over the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)
- PILOT: "[Airport Name] traffic, [Callsign], taking off [Runway] [Airport Name]"
- Example: "Brewton Traffic, Cessna One Seven Two Seven Victor, takeoff runway two four, Brewton"
- Crossing the hold short call Lights (nav/strobe/landing), Camera (transponder), Action (mixture/flaps/trim/fuel pump, if required"
- Utilize all available runway (i.e., taxi to the edge before aligning with the runway centerline
- Verify heading indicator/magnetic compass are for that of the active runway
- ICS: "Engine instruments in the green"
- Lower your feet to the floor ensuring toes are on rudders ONLY, and not the brakes
- ICS: "Airspeed Alive"
- Keep in right rudder and some left aileron to counteract p-factor crosswind effect as required
- As you accelerate, the aircraft must be flown and not taxied, requiring smaller inputs
- Vr is 55 KIAS, or as recommended for lower takeoff weight
- Smoothly pitch up or the aircraft may delay a climb
- Forcing the aircraft off the ground may leave it stuck in ground effect or stall [Figure 2]
- During gust conditions, the pilot should remain on the deck a little longer
- Trim as necessary
- Use of the rudders may be required to keep the airplane headed straight down the runway, avoiding P-factor
- Establish and maintain Vy
- Trim as necessary
- Avoid drifting off centerline or into obstructions, or the path of another aircraft that may be taking off from a parallel runway
- Trim as necessary
Maintain Vy if climb performance warrants
If remaining in the traffic pattern, leave the auxiliary fuel pump switch in the ON position
When the instructor is not in the plane, the weight will be less and therefore the pitch attitude may differ: airborne sooner, climb more rapidly, higher performance
- Failure to adequately clear the area prior to taxiing into position on the active runway
- Abrupt use of the throttle
- Failure to check engine instruments for signs of malfunction after applying takeoff power
- Failure to anticipate the airplane’s left turning tendency on initial acceleration
- Over-correcting for left turning tendency
- Relying solely on the airspeed indicator rather than developed feel for indications of speed and airplane controllability during acceleration and lift-off
- Failure to attain proper lift-off attitude
- Inadequate compensation for torque/P-factor during initial climb resulting in a side-slip
- Over-Control of elevators during initial climb out
- Limiting scan to areas directly ahead of the airplane (pitch attitude and direction), resulting in allowing a wing (usually the left) to drop immediately after lift-off
- Failure to attain/maintain best rate-of-climb airspeed (Vy)
- Failure to employ the principles of attitude flying during climb-out resulting in "chasing" the airspeed indicator
- Takeoff (and landing) factors are dependent on: thrust, weight, lift, drag, and friction (runway surfaces)
- Different techniques should be considered when departing from shorter airfields, when obstacles are present, or when operating out of a soft (grass/dirt) airfield
- Understanding the basics and executing normal takeoffs will set you up for success when performing short, soft, or crosswind takeoffs
- Airplane Flying Handbook (5-8) Normal Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb
- CFI Notebook.net - Airspeed Indicator
- CFI Notebook.net - Crosswind Takeoff
- CFI Notebook.net - High-Lift Devices
- CFI Notebook.net - Propeller
- CFI Notebook.net - Short-Field Takeoff
- CFI Notebook.net - Soft-Field Takeoff
- CFI Notebook.net - Takeoff Procedures Lesson Plan
- CFI Notebook.net - Terminal Broadcast Services/Systems
- FAA - Practical Test Standards/Airman Certification Standards