• Navigation should always be done from the chart to the landmarks
    • This means look at your chart first and then at the ground for your landmark
    • If done the other way around you could find yourself staring at your map looking for a landmark that may not be charted
Hydrography (water features)
Figure 1: Hydrography (water features)

Positive Landmarks:

  • Can be positively identified and plotted as a point on a chart
  • Mountains and large natural bodies of water are very good positive landmarks
  • You need not pass directly over a positive landmark for it to be useful to you
  • Be cautious of man-made landmarks as they may have changed, moved, or no longer exist
  • Hydrography (water features): [Figure 1]
    • Water features are depicted using two tones of blue, and are considered either "Open Water" or "Inland Water"
    • "Open Water," a lighter blue tone, shows the shoreline limitations of all coastal water features at the average (mean) high water levels for oceans and seas
    • Light blue also represents the connecting waters like bays, gulfs, sounds, fjords, and large estuaries
    • Exceptionally large lakes like the Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, and Lake Okeechobee, etc., are considered Open Water features
    • The Open Water tone extends inland as far as necessary to adjoin the darker blue "Inland Water" tones
    • All other bodies of water are marked as "Inland Water" in the darker blue tone

Linear Landmarks:

  • Can be positively identified but not specifically plotted because they extend for some distance
  • Features such as roads, railroads, coastlines, power lines and rivers may make good timing checkpoints if they are perpendicular to the course line and have other specific environmental particulars that identify your position
  • Rivers and power lines must be easy to find, either isolated or large so they are unmistakable with confirming landmarks so they can be confirmed
  • Railroads and major highways are almost always depicted on aeronautical charts

Power Line Linear Landmark
Figure 2: Power lines as linear landmarks

Bridges and Viaducts
Figure 3: Bridges and Viaducts

Figure 4: Causeways

Overpasses and Underpasses
Figure 5: Overpasses and Underpasses

Figure 6: Pipelines

Power Line Linear Landmark
Figure 7: Power lines as linear landmarks

Uncertain Landmarks:

  • Features that a pilot suspects he can correlate with the chart, but they may not be fully reliable
  • Landmarks such as oil wells, and windmills may be repetitious
  • Objects may look much alike



  • None