Preflight Preparation
Lesson Plans

Pilot Qualifications:

  • Applicants must satisfy the requirements of Section I, Task A by exhibiting satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airman and medical certificates including privileges, limitations, currency, and operating as pilot-in-command (PIC) as a private pilot
  • References: 14 CFR parts 61, 68, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25; AC 68-1

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.A.R1:

    Failure to distinguish proficiency versus currency
  • PA.I.A.R2:

    Flying unfamiliar airplanes, or operating with unfamiliar flight display systems, and avionics

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.A.S1:

    Apply requirements to act as PIC under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in a scenario given by the evaluator

Airworthiness Requirements:

  • Satisfy the requirements of Section I, Task B by determining that applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airworthiness requirements, including aircraft certificates
  • References: 14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.B.R1:

    Inoperative equipment discovered prior to flight

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.B.R1:

    Locate and describe airplane airworthiness and registration information
  • PA.I.B.R2:

    Determine the airplane is airworthy in a scenario given by the evaluator
  • PA.I.B.R3:

    Apply appropriate procedures for operating with inoperative equipment in a scenario given by the evaluator

Weather Information:

  • Satisfy the requirements of Section I, Task C by determining that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with weather information for a flight under VFR
  • References: 14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-25; AC 00-6, AC 00-45, AC 00-54; AIM

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate understanding of:
  • PA.I.C.K1:

    Sources of weather data (e.g., National Weather Service, Flight Service) for flight planning purposes
  • PA.I.C.K2:

    Acceptable weather products and resources required for preflight planning, current and forecast weather for departure, en route, and arrival phases of flight
  • PA.I.C.K3:

    Meteorology applicable to the departure, en route, alternate, and destination under VFR in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to include expected climate and hazardous conditions such as:
  • PA.I.C.K4:

    Flight deck displays of digital weather and aeronautical information

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.C.R1:

    Factors involved in making the go/no-go and continue/divert decisions, to include:
    • PA.I.C.R1a:
      Circumstances that would make diversion prudent
    • PA.I.C.R1b:
      Personal weather minimums
    • PA.I.C.R1c:
      Hazardous weather conditions to include known or forecast icing or turbulence aloft
  • PA.I.C.R2:

    Limitations of:
    • PA.I.C.R2a:
      Onboard weather equipment
    • PA.I.C.R2b:
      Aviation weather reports and forecasts
    • PA.I.C.R2c:
      Inflight weather resources

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.B.R1:

    Use available aviation weather resources to obtain an adequate weather briefing
  • PA.I.B.R2:

    Analyze the implications of at least three of the conditions listed in K3a through K3l above, using actual weather or weather conditions in a scenario provided by the evaluator
  • PA.I.B.R3:

    Correlate weather information to make a competent go/no-go decision

Cross-Country Flight Planning:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with cross-country flights and VFR flight planning
  • References: 14 CFR part 91; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-25; Navigation Charts; Chart Supplements; AIM; NOTAMs

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.I.D.K1:

    Route planning, including consideration of different classes and special use airspace (SUA) and selection of appropriate and available navigation/communication systems and facilities
  • PA.I.D.K2:

    Altitude selection accounting for terrain and obstacles, glide distance of the airplane, VFR cruising altitudes, and the effect of wind
  • PA.I.D.K3:

    Calculating:
    • PA.I.D.K4:
      Time, climb and descent rates, course, distance, heading, true airspeed, and groundspeed
    • PA.I.D.K3b:
      Estimated time of arrival to include conversion to universal coordinated time (UTC)
    • PA.I.D.K3c:
      Fuel requirements, to include reserve
  • PA.I.D.K4:

    Elements of a VFR flight plan
  • PA.I.D.K5:

    Procedures for activating and closing a VFR flight plan

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.D.R1:

    Pilot
  • PA.I.D.R2:

    Aircraft
  • PA.I.D.R3:

    Environment (e.g., weather, airports, airspace, terrain, obstacles)
  • PA.I.D.R4:

    External Pressures
  • PA.I.D.R5:

    Limitations of air traffic control (ATC) services
  • PA.I.D.R6:

    Improper fuel planning

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.D.S1:

    Prepare, present, and explain a cross-country flight plan assigned by the evaluator including a risk analysis based on real-time weather, to the first fuel stop
  • PA.I.D.S2:

    Apply pertinent information from appropriate and current aeronautical charts, Chart Supplements; NOTAMs relative to airport, runway and taxiway closures; and other flight publications
  • PA.I.D.S3:

    Create a navigation plan and simulate filing a VFR flight plan
  • PA.I.D.S4:

    Recalculate fuel reserves based on a scenario provided by the evaluator

National Airspace System:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the National Airspace System (NAS) operating under VFR as a private pilot
  • References: 14 CFR parts 71, 91, 93; FAA-H-8083-2; Navigation Charts; AIM

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.I.E.K1:

    Types of airspace/airspace classes and associated requirements and limitations
  • PA.I.E.K2:

    Charting symbology
  • PA.I.E.K3:

    Special use airspace (SUA), special flight rules areas (SFRA), temporary flight restrictions (TFR), and other airspace areas

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.E.R1:

    Various classes and types of airspace

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.E.S1:

    Identify and comply with the requirements for basic VFR weather minimums and flying in particular classes of airspace
  • PA.I.E.S2:

    Correctly identify airspace and operate in accordance with associated communication and equipment requirements
  • PA.I.E.S3:

    Identify the requirements for operating in SUA or within a TFR. Identify and comply with SATR and SFRA operations, if applicable

Performance and Limitations:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with operating an airplane safely within the parameters of its performance capabilities and limitations
  • References: FAA-H-8083-1, FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.I.F.K1:

    Elements related to performance and limitations by explaining the use of charts, tables, and data to determine performance
  • PA.I.F.K2:

    Factors affecting performance, to include:
    • PA.I.F.K2a:
      Atmospheric conditions
    • PA.I.F.K2b:
      Pilot technique
    • PA.I.F.K2c:
      Airplane configuration
    • PA.I.F.K2d:
      Airport environment
    • PA.I.F.K2e:
      Loading (e.g., center of gravity)
    • PA.I.F.K2f:
      Weight and balance
  • PA.I.F.K3:

    Aerodynamics

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.F.R1:

    Inaccurate use of manufacturer’s performance charts, tables, and data
  • PA.I.F.R2:

    Exceeding airplane limitations
  • PA.I.F.R3:

    Possible differences between calculated performance and actual performance

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.F.S1:

    Compute the weight and balance, correct out-of-center of gravity (CG) loading errors and determine if the weight and balance remains within limits during all phases of flight
  • PA.I.F.S2:

    Utilize the appropriate airplane manufacturer’s approved performance charts, tables, and data

Operation of Systems:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the safe operation of systems on the airplane provided for the flight test
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.I.G.R1:

    Failure to detect system malfunctions or failures
  • PA.I.G.R2:

    Improper management of a system failure
  • PA.I.G.R3:

    Failure to monitor and manage automated systems

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.G.S1:

    Operate at least three of the systems listed in K1a through K1l above appropriately
  • PA.I.G.S2:

    Use appropriate checklists properly

Human Factors:

  • Satisfy the requirements of Section I, Task H by determining that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with personal health, flight physiology, aeromedical and human factors, as it relates to safety of flight

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:
  • PA.I.H.R1:

    Aeromedical and physiological issues
  • PA.I.H.R2:

    Hazardous attitudes
  • PA.I.H.R3:

    Distractions, loss of situational awareness, or improper task management

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.H.S1:

    Associate the symptoms and effects for at least three of the conditions listed in K1a through K1l above with the cause(s) and corrective action(s)
  • PA.I.H.S2:

    Perform self-assessment, including fitness for flight and personal minimums, for actual flight or a scenario given by the evaluator

Water and Seaplane Characteristics, Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (ASES, AMES):

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with water and seaplane characteristics, seaplane bases, maritime rules, and aids to marine navigation
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23; AIM; USCG Navigation Rules, International-Inland; POH/AFM; Chart Supplements

Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.I.I.K1:

    The characteristics of a water surface as affected by features, such as:
    • PA.I.I.K1a:
      Size and location
    • PA.I.I.K1b:
      Protected and unprotected areas
    • PA.I.I.K1c:
      Surface wind
    • PA.I.I.K1d:
      Direction and strength of water current
    • PA.I.I.K1e:
      Floating and partially submerged debris
    • PA.I.I.K1f:
      Sandbars, islands, and shoals
    • PA.I.I.K1g:
      Vessel traffic and wakes
    • PA.I.I.K1h:
      Other characteristics specific to the area
  • PA.I.I.K2:

    Float and hull construction, and its effect on seaplane performance
  • PA.I.I.K3:

    Causes of porpoising and skipping, and the pilot action needed to prevent or correct these occurrences
  • PA.I.I.K4:

    How to locate and identify seaplane bases on charts or in directories
  • PA.I.I.K5:

    Operating restrictions at various bases
  • PA.I.I.K6:

    Right-of-way, steering, and sailing rules pertinent to seaplane operation
  • PA.I.I.K7:

    Marine navigation aids, such as buoys, beacons, lights, sound signals, and range markers

Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:
  • PA.I.I.R1:

    Local conditions
  • PA.I.I.R2:

    Impact of marine traffic

Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.I.I.S1:

    Assess the water surface characteristics for the proposed flight
  • PA.I.I.S2:

    Identify restrictions at local seaplane bases
  • PA.I.I.S3:

    Identify marine navigation aids
  • PA.I.I.S4:

    Perform correct right-of-way, steering, and sailing operations

References:

  • 14 CFR parts 39, 43, 91
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-2) Risk Management Handbook
  • FAA (FAA-H-8083-25) Pilot Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Navigation Charts
  • U.S. Chart Supplements
  • Aeronautical Information Manual
  • Notice to Airman