• 180° reversal in the direction of flight through the vertical
    • Combines a climbing turn for 90°, and a smooth descending turn for 90° but with a 180° heading change
  • The nose will never exceed 45° up and down or 2.0-Gs; it is very slow and gentle, developing the ability to smoothly control the aircraft in balanced flight, through constantly changing attitudes and airspeeds
  • Performed in opposing pairs
  • Can be used as a clearing turn
  • The maneuver is very slow and gentle
  • The roll rate should be constant through the maneuver
  • Note that you never exceed 45° nose up

All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Stall/Aerobatic Checklist:

  • Cockpit: Clear of lose objects
  • Seat Belts: Locked and tight
  • Autoignition/Fuel Pump: On
  • Engine Instruments: Checked
  • Report: Stall/aerobatic checklist complete

Additional Considerations:

  • Ensure pockets are zipped and the map-case is secured to prevent loose items from going airborne


  1. Climb/Descend to 12,000'
  2. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  3. Perform a clearing turn
  4. Begin at 300 KIAS on altitude, with power set to ~89% RPM on a reference heading
    • 2° NU on ADI, 1800 PPH
  5. Raise the nose smoothly, keeping wings level to ~20°
  6. As the nose continues up, initiate a slow roll reaching a maximum pitch up of 45° at approximately 45° of heading change and 45° AoB
  7. As AoB continues to increase, start the nose downward toward the horizon
  8. After the 90° of heading change through the horizon, with 90° AoB and an airspeed of approximately 150-170 KIAS, use bottom rudder and some forward stick to cut through the horizon
    • Hold some back stick on the stick, but very little as it falls through
  9. Reverse the roll and begin to decrease the AoB, as the nose falls through the horizon
  10. The nose should scribe a similar arc below the horizon reaching a maximum pitch of 45° nose down at approximately 135° of heading change
  11. Roll out at a constant rate, increasing back pressure to control airspeed and altitude
  12. All roll should be removed from the maneuver at 20° nose low
  13. Upon completion of the maneuver, you should be in straight and level flight at 300 KIAS 180° from the original heading at about the same altitude
    • Immediately raise the nose and continue in the other direction


  1. Give an instrument, gas, and position report (IGP)
  2. CONFIGURATION: aerobatic cruise
  3. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  4. CODES: 4700
  5. Perform a clearing turn
    • Successive wingovers, when continued without interruption, serve as clearing turns for the next series
    • Roll out on or parallel to a section line
    • Anticipate the section line to roll out on it vs. searching after your clearing turn
    • Pick a reference point on the horizon, 90° to either side of the nose, in the direction you intend to perform the maneuver
  6. Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you
    • ICS: "Entry altitude is..."
  7. Raise the exhaust stacks to the horizon and then start a roll towards the 90° checkpoint
  8. Control pitch and roll rate so as to reach:
    • Nose: 45° up (aggressive at first)
    • AoB: 45° ("Feels" like you need to put a lot more pitch input than AoB)
    • Heading change: 45°
  9. Continue to roll towards:
    • Speed: 90 KIAS
    • AoB: 90°
    • Heading change: 90° (do not exceed 90° AoB)
  10. Allow the nose to fall through the horizon, and then commence the recovery by smoothly rolling and pulling out of the diving turn
    • The tendency is to recover AoB too fast, keep it slow
  11. After approximately 135 of turn:
    • Nose: 45° down
    • AoB: 45°
    • Wingover Maneuver
      Figure 1: Wingover Maneuver
  12. Control the pitch and roll rate so as to recover on the original altitude and reciprocal heading

  13. NOTE:
    When the maneuver is completed at the same altitude it was initiated, there is a tendency to gain about 10 KIAS

  14. Repeat steps 6 through 8, performing the second wingover in the opposite direction
    • Upon completion of the series, the aircraft should once again be established in level balanced flight, on the original heading and altitude

Common Errors:

  • Getting too nose high and slow over the top, and therefore, finishing high and slow
  • Not getting high enough through the first 90° and getting slow at the end, due to pulling hard to make entry altitude