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Power-off 180 Approach and Landing

Introduction:

  • Power-off 180s are maneuvers you hopefully only execute in training
  • The intent of this maneuver is to demonstrate judgment, technique, and skill necessary for safely and accurately flying the airplane following a loss of power in the traffic pattern
Margin Of Safety In Flight Phases
Margin Of Safety In Flight Phases

Power-off 180 Approach and Landing Procedure:

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Always fly in accordance with Pilot Operating Handbooks (POHs)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


  1. Complete the Descent Flows/Checklists
  2. Talk to tower as appropriate to the airspace you're operating within
    • Controlled: "[Tower], [Callsign], [Location], [Information], [Intentions]"
      • Example: "Palms tower, Cessna one seven two seven victor, fives miles to the west for touch and goes"
    • Uncontrolled: "[Facility Name], [Callsign], [Location], [Information], [Intentions], [Facility Name]"
      • Example: "Palms tower, Cessna one seven two seven victor, five miles to the west for touch and goes, palms tower"
    • Abide by tower's instructions and plan to enter the traffic pattern at Traffic Pattern Altitude (TPA) on a 45° entry to the downwind, maintaining a one-half mile distance from the runway on the downwind leg
  3. Set power to establish and maintain traffic pattern speed
    • Trim as necessary
  4. Abeam the point of intended landing, smoothly reduce power to idle lower the landing gear, and then commence a descent
    • Keeping your hand on the landing gear until given the down and locked indication will prevent forgetting
    • Controlled: "[Tower], [Callsign] abeam, gear 3 down and locked, [Landing Type]"
      • ATC: "[Callsign], [Winds], cleared for [Landing Type], [Runway]"
    • Uncontrolled: None
    • Anticipate the balloon effect when lowering the flaps
    • Trim as necessary
  5. At the 45° point to the intended touchdown point (or as appropriate for wind conditions), commence a turn to the base leg
    • ICS: "Cleared left, forward, clear right, turning [Left/Right]"
    • Controlled: None
    • Uncontrolled: "[Facility Name], [Callsign], turning base for [Runway], [Facility Name]"
    • The wind is now at your side, so depending on its strength, you will need to compensate for drift with a crab angle
  6. Set the flaps, then establish and maintain base leg airspeed
    • Anticipate the balloon effect when lowering the flaps
    • Trim as necessary
  7. Visually verify that the final approach (including the extended final and the opposite base leg) is clear, and turn final
    • ICS: "Cleared left, forward, clear right, turning [Left/Right]"
    • Controlled: None
    • Uncontrolled: "[Facility Name], [Callsign], turning base for [Runway], [Facility Name]"
    • Check your heading indicator against the runway heading to ensure you're lined up with the correct runway
  8. At a point appropriate for wind conditions, commence a turn to the base leg using a medium (20° - 40°), or slightly steeper bank
    • Position the base leg (in toward, perpendicular to, or out from intended touchdown point) considering altitude or wind conditions so as to conserve/dissipate altitude as necessary to reach the intended touchdown point
  9. On the base leg, at the base leg key position, set the flaps, and establish and maintain base leg speed
    • Trim as necessary
    • The base leg key position is not a fixed point on the ground, and may be adjusted to accommodate varying conditions
  10. Visually verify that the final approach (including the extended final and the opposite base leg) is clear, and turn final
    • ICS: "Cleared left, forward, clear right, turning [Left/Right]"
    • Controlled: None
    • Uncontrolled: "[Facility Name], [Callsign], turning base for [Runway], [Facility Name]"
    • Check your heading indicator against the runway heading to ensure you're lined up with the correct runway
  11. By 300' above landing, complete a GUMP check
    • GUMP Check:
      • Gas: Fuel Selector and Pumps - SET
      • Undercarriage: Gear - DOWN AND LOCKED (if applicable)
      • Mixture: Mixture - FULL FORWARD
      • Prop: Prop - FULL FORWARD (if applicable)
  12. When landing is assured, set the flaps for landing and establish approach speed
    • Anticipate the balloon effect when lowering the flaps
    • Trim as necessary
    • The use of slips is permitted to ensure a good, safe landing, touching down on or within 200' beyond the desired point on the runway
  13. Before the round out, begin smoothly reducing power, continuing the power reduction to idle during the round-out while increasing the pitch to maintain a constant glide path to the desired touchdown point (airspeed will begin decreasing)
    • Avoid closing the throttle rapidly, which may result in an immediate increase in the rate of descent and a hard landing
    • Don't focus on the runway but instead look long to flare
      • You will see the horizon flatten as if you’re sitting on the ground
    • Touch down at minimum controllable airspeed with a power-off stall pitch attitude, on the main wheels first (minimum float), and with the throttle at the idle (closed) position
    • Hold the nose wheel off with back pressure throughout the rollout; allowing settling gently
  14. Increase aileron deflection into the wind if present or has shifted from expected
  15. Increase "up" elevator to increase braking effectiveness
  16. At nose wheel touch down:
    • Callout, "flaps up, max braking"
    • Retract the flaps to the up (0°) position (for maximum braking effectiveness)
    • Hold the control wheel full back, and
    • Apply braking as necessary to stop within the shortest distance possible, consistent with safety and controllability
  17. Maintain directional control throughout the roll-out with the rudder, slowing sufficiently before turning on a taxiway
    • Reference board speeds: you should be traveling no faster than twice the distance remaining
    • Example: at the 3 board, you should be traveling no more than 60 knots
  18. If required, raise the flaps to decrease lift over the wings and therefore increase weight on the brakes
  19. Exit the runway without delay at the first available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by ATC
    • An aircraft is considered clear of the runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the runway edge and there are no restrictions to its continued movement beyond the runway holding position markings
  20. Proceed with taxi procedures

Exiting the Runway After Landing:

  • Exit the runway without delay at the first available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by ATC
    • Pilots must not exit the landing runway onto another runway unless authorized by ATC
    • At airports with an operating control tower, pilots should not stop or reverse course on the runway without first obtaining ATC approval
  • Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the runway edge and there are no restrictions to its continued movement beyond the runway holding position markings
    • In the absence of ATC instructions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding position markings associated with the landing runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude into or cross another taxiway or ramp area
    • Once all parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding position markings, the pilot must hold unless further instructions have been issued by ATC
  • The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or ramp area when required
  • Guidance contained in subparagraphs a and b above is considered an integral part of the landing clearance and satisfies the requirement of 14 CFR Section 91.129
  • Immediately change to ground control frequency when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi clearance
  • The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any potential conflictions with other ground traffic prior to advising the pilot to contact ground control
  • Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking
    • That clearance does not authorize the aircraft to "enter" or "cross" any runways. Pilots not familiar with the taxi route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC

Power-off 180 Approach and Landing Common Errors:

Power-off 180 Approach and Landing Airman Certification Standards:

Conclusion:

References: