• Combines the first half of a loop followed by a half-roll to the wings level attitude
  • Achieves a 180° change of direction

All procedures are GENERALIZED.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Stall/Aerobatic Checklist:

  • Cockpit: Clear of lose objects
  • Seat Belts: Locked and tight
  • Autoignition/Fuel Pump: On
  • Engine Instruments: Checked
  • Report: Stall/aerobatic checklist complete

Additional Considerations:

  • Ensure pockets are zipped and the map-case is secured to prevent loose items from going airborne


  1. Give an instrument, gas, and position report (IGP)
  2. CONFIGURATION: transition to aerobatic cruise
  3. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  4. CODES: 4700
  5. Perform a clearing turn
    • During the last 90° of turn, lower the nose slightly and accelerate to 200 KIAS
    • Roll out of the clearing turn on or parallel to a section line with 200 KIAS
    • Anticipate the section line to roll out on it vs. searching after your clearing turn
    • The increased airspeed will require a slight amount of left rudder to maintain balanced flight
  6. Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you
    • ICS: "Entry altitude is..."
  7. PULL: Commence the AGSM and immediately start a smooth straight pull-up, accelerating to 3.5Gs within 2-3 seconds
  8. LEVEL: Recheck the wings level as the nose passes through the horizon
    • The initial pull will be strong, but will need to be relaxed toward the top to keep a constant rate
  9. BALL: Increase right rudder pressure as airspeed decreases
  10. CHECK: Shortly after passing the vertical position, tilt your head back and visually located the opposite horizon
    • Correct with aileron, as necessary, to maintain the wings parallel to the horizon
    • Check the nose in relation to the section line and correct directional deviations, as necessary, by adjusting the rudder input
  11. As the nose approaches a point 20° above the opposite horizon "canopy bow" on the horizon, slow the rate of nose movement by neutralizing back stick pressure
  12. Commence an aileron roll in either direction to the upright position
    • Take out rudder smoothly
    • Anticipate the need for slight forward stick pressure as the aircraft passes 90° of roll
  13. The maneuver is complete when the aircraft is, once again, in the level flight attitude on the reciprocal heading
    • The airspeed should be approximately 100 KIAS
    • The nose attitude will, therefore, be slightly high
    • It is common to smell gas fumes after the immelmann; this is normal as long as they go away after a few minutes

Immelmann Common Errors:

  • Failure to adequately clear the area
  • Excessive G causing a large loss of energy before reaching the top


  • Consider practicing maneuvers on a flight simulator to introduce yourself to maneuvers or knock off rust
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