• Combines the first half of a loop followed by a half-roll to the wings level attitude
  • Achieves a 180° change of direction

All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

Stall/Aerobatic Checklist:

  • Cockpit: Clear of lose objects
  • Seat Belts: Locked and tight
  • Autoignition/Fuel Pump: On
  • Engine Instruments: Checked
  • Report: Stall/aerobatic checklist complete

Additional Considerations:

  • Ensure pockets are zipped and the map-case is secured to prevent loose items from going airborne


  1. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  2. Perform a clearing turn
  3. Begin the maneuver at 380 KIAS on altitude, and lined up on a prominent terrain feature or section line
  4. Advance the power to 96% RPM and expeditiously initiate a smooth 4-G wings level pull up
  5. Increase back stick pressure to maintain 4-G pull as airspeed decreases
  6. To maintain wings level attitude during the first half, scan the horizon on both sides
  7. Continue to maintain the 4-G pull, until reaching optimum AoA (17 units), and maintain optimum AoA until the nose is 10° above the horizon
    • Canopy bow will be on the horizon
  8. Release back pressure and roll upright
    • The aircraft control will be mushy at a slow airspeed (150 to 170)
  9. You will need to increase back stick pressure, as you approach wings level upright, so that you don't lose altitude
    • If you have bled off too much airspeed and are below 150 KIAS, pull through the horizon until you reach 150 and then roll level


  1. Give an instrument, gas, and position report (IGP)
  2. CONFIGURATION: transition to aerobatic cruise
  3. Complete the stall/aerobatic checklist
  4. CODES: 4700
  5. Perform a clearing turn
    • During the last 90° of turn, lower the nose slightly and accelerate to 200 KIAS
    • Roll out of the clearing turn on or parallel to a section line with 200 KIAS
    • Anticipate the section line to roll out on it vs. searching after your clearing turn
    • The increased airspeed will require a slight amount of left rudder to maintain balanced flight
  6. Recheck the wings level and clear the airspace above you
    • ICS: "Entry altitude is..."
  7. PULL: Commence the AGSM and immediately start a smooth straight pull-up, accelerating to 3.5Gs within 2-3 seconds
  8. LEVEL: Recheck the wings level as the nose passes through the horizon
    • The initial pull will be strong, but will need to be relaxed toward the top to keep a constant rate
  9. BALL: Increase right rudder pressure as airspeed decreases
  10. CHECK: Shortly after passing the vertical position, tilt your head back and visually located the opposite horizon
    • Correct with aileron, as necessary, to maintain the wings parallel to the horizon
    • Check the nose in relation to the section line and correct directional deviations, as necessary, by adjusting the rudder input
  11. As the nose approaches a point 20° above the opposite horizon "canopy bow" on the horizon, slow the rate of nose movement by neutralizing back stick pressure
  12. Commence an aileron roll in either direction to the upright position
    • Take out rudder smoothly
    • Anticipate the need for slight forward stick pressure as the aircraft passes 90° of roll
  13. The maneuver is complete when the aircraft is, once again, in the level flight attitude on the reciprocal heading
    • The airspeed should be approximately 100 KIAS
    • The nose attitude will, therefore, be slightly high
    • It is common to smell gas fumes after the immelmann; this is normal as long as they go away after a few minutes

Common Errors:

  • Excessive G causing a large loss of energy before reaching the top