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Emergency Procedures

Introduction:

  • PIC is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation of that aircraft
  • In an emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot-in-command may deviate from FAR 91 Subpart A, General, and Subpart B, Flight Rules, to the extend required to meet the emergency
    • If the PIC choses to deviate from the provisions of an ATC clearance, the PIC must notify ATC as soon as possible and obtain an amended clearance
    • Unless deviation is necessary under the emergency authority of 91.3, pilots of IFR flights experiencing two-way radio communication failure are expected to adhere to the procedures prescribed under "IFR operations, two-way radio communications failure"
  • Troubleshooting is important but don't fix an airplane airborne when you can safely land first
  • Be directive, if you want something, tell them, don't let ATC drive you
  • Declare emergencies with general terms, use "electrical" or "engine" for example
  • The PIC may deviate from any part 91 rules
  • The PIC must notify ATC as soon as possible and obtain an amended clearance
  • Discrete emergency frequencies may be assigned by ATC
    • By default use CTAF or guard (121.5/243.0)
    • You must hear different radio communications
  • Emergency hand signals are listed in 6-5-3
  • First 3 seconds, ask yourself, where am I? What do I have? Is the light valid?
  • With every emergency there will be primary and secondary signals
    • It is important to realize that secondary indications may, or may not be present

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


Emergency Procedures:

  • ALWAYS:
    • Aircraft control - MAINTAIN
    • Precise nature of problem - DETERMINE
    • Applicable emergency procedures - EXECUTE
    • Appropriate landing criteria - DETERMINE AND EXECUTE
  • As always, the most important emergency procedure you can ever remember is to aviate, navigate, and then communicate
  • These three steps are really a continuous process which never stops requiring pilot judgment to prioritize steps
    • Aviate:

      • Complete any immediate action procedures that may be required
      • Reduce the electrical load, as required, to buy yourself time
      • After the situation is under control, and while navigating/communicating, open to Chapter 7 of the POH and begin going through the emergency procedure steps, starting back at step 1
    • Navigate:

      • Evaluate the situation and determine if you think the aircraft needs to land as soon as possible, or as soon as practical
      • Depending on your decision and the situation at hand, prepare for arrival
      • Remember that without electrical power to your instruments, you will have to rely on dead reckoning or radar vectors from ATC
    • Communicate:

      • Contact ATC if able
      • If you have not already had to address your passengers, take the time to do so now
      • If you have a hand held radio, break it out and attempt to establish radio communication, as able, with a local agency
      • While less reliable but more predominate, reach for your cell phone and attempt calling ATC
        • With this option in mind, remember that fumbling to find the phone number while in flight is going to be distracting and could make the situation much worse, causing distraction and possibly loss of situational awareness
        • Consider loading your phone with the appropriate telephone numbers a step in preflight

Troubleshooting:

  • Request block altitudes and orbit on the approach end, offset to the runway of intended landing if possible
  • Climb above the weather of possible
  • When contacting base start with what you have, what you've done and what page you're now on
  • Consider fuel remaining for the urgency to get the aircraft on deck
  • Receiving vectors it is a good idea to constantly repeat headings and altitudes are you are busy and it is easy to forget

2 Types of Emergencies:

  • Immediate Action: do as quick as possible consistent with flying (aviating, navigating, communicating)
  • Non-Immediate Action: Get to them when you get to them

What to do?

  • Breathe
  • Point to field/Immediate Action
  • Climb if possible to improve communication and radar coverage
    • Note that you cannot climb unauthorized in IFR
  • Continue squawking the same code under radar coverage, if unable to contact ATC, squawk 7700 and this can keep you free from violations, though an explanation may be requested later
  • Orbit near field in VMC

Electrical Emergencies:

Loss of Electrical Power:

  • A total loss of electrical power, especially at night, can be extremely uncomfortable
  • Considerations:

    • Aircraft radios will not work, requiring the use of a hand held radio
    • If at night, pilot controlled lighting will not work

Alternator Failure:

  • An alternator failure can be recognized by the batteries picking up the electrical load on the aircraft
  • It is important to know that the aircraft will continue to fly without the alternator if that is the only issue
    • However, aircraft components such as radios and lights will eventually cease to function
    • This means the aircraft will not be legal to fly and may prohibit safe landing at the intended airport due to the loss of radios and transponder

Oil Emergencies:

Low Oil Pressure:

  • Low oil pressure can be caused by an oil leak which leads to lack of oil in the system, or an ineffective oil pump
  • Primary Indications:

    • Oil pressure will indicate low
  • Secondary Indications:

    • Rising Cylinder Head Temperatures (CHT)
    • Oil temperature may rise (if the pressure drops rapidly then it is less likely you will have a corresponding temperature indication
    • Rough engine indications

Aircraft Fires:

  • When exiting the aircraft, always exit to the upwind direction as smoke and fumes are toxic

Controllability:

  • Fuel Imbalance:

    • Many aircraft are equipped with a fuel selector which allows you to select which tank, or both, from which to draw fuel
    • Aircraft can at times develop a fuel imbalance from various sources:
      • Prolonged turns in the same direction
      • Mechanical reasons
    • If a fuel imbalance occurs, select the appropriate (fullest tank) to even out the fuel levels
  • Split Flaps:

    • A split flap condition is a state when the flaps on one side of an aircraft deploy, but not the other
    • This can result in a dramatic rolling moment
    • To solve this problem, simply raise the flaps again
  • Runaway Trim:

    • Runaway trim is a condition in which an electric trim motor has become stuck, causing the trim to move when uncommanded
    • This can result in a serious flight control problem where the pilot has to muscle the controls to try and maintain a flyable aircraft
    • The solution is rather simple but complicated in the moment if not considered on the ground:
      • Know where your trim motor circuit breaker is, and pull it if you suspect runaway trim

Landing Gear:

Landing Gear Fails to Extend:

  • When the landing gear will not extend, the pilot should try to manually extend the landing gear

Distress Procedures:

  • Do not hesitate to declare an emergency if in distress
  • An aircraft in an urgency condition needs to recognize when a situation becomes that of distress
  • Safety is not a luxury! Take action
  • Distress frequencies, procedures, signals, and call signs may vary among theaters of operations and are contained in various directives, such as Joint Publication 3-50, DoD FLIPS, and ICAO publications
  • A copy of the applicable procedures and signals shall be carried in the cockpit of all naval aircraft and may be used in time of peace regardless of the degree of radio silence that may be imposed during tactical exercises
  • They will be used in time of war when prescribed by the officer in tactical command and may be amplified as necessary to cover local conditions or specific military operations

Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Communications (ARFF):

  • Discrete Emergency Frequency:

    • Direct contact between an emergency aircraft flight crew, Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Incident Commander (ARFF IC), and the Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), is possible on an aeronautical radio frequency (Discrete Emergency Frequency [DEF]), designated by Air Traffic Control (ATC) from the operational frequencies assigned to that facility
    • Emergency aircraft at airports without an ATCT, (or when the ATCT is closed), may contact the ARFF IC (if ARFF service is provided), on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) published for the airport or the civil emergency frequency 121.5 MHz
  • Radio Call Signs:

    • Preferred radio call sign for the ARFF IC is "(location/facility) Command" when communicating with the flight crew and the FAA ATCT
      • Example: LAX Command
      • Example: Washington Command
  • ARFF Emergency Hand Signals:

    • In the event that electronic communications cannot be maintained between the ARFF IC and the flight crew, standard emergency hand signals as depicted below should be used
    • These hand signals should be known and understood by all cockpit and cabin aircrew, and all ARFF firefighters
Recommend Evacuation
Figure 9: Recommend Evacuation
Recommend Stop
Figure 10: Recommend Stop
Emergency Contained
Figure 11: Emergency Contained
  • WARNING:
    • An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in injury or death if not carefully observed or followed
  • CAUTION:
    • An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in damage to equipment if not carefully observed or followed
  • NOTE:
    • An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that is essential to emphasize
  • Shall:
    • Mandatory
  • Should:
    • Recommended
  • May:
    • Optional
  • Will
    • Indicates futurity, never indicates any degree of requirement for application of a procedure

Formation:

  • The emergency aircraft has the lead unless they don't want it, "bleeder is the leader"
  • The most damaged aircraft should land last, especially for single runway operations, with the exception of land as soon as possibles
  • In NORDO situations, any HEFOE from the emergency aircraft means lead brings you back for a HALF flap, straight-in approach
  • Be ready with the book to assist a wingman

Conclusion:

  • Always Aviate, Navigate and Communicate
  • 2 things will kill you immediately: hitting the ground or another airplane
    • Think first before you act

References: