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Emergency Approach & Landing

Introduction:

  • Emergency Approach and Landing simulate an emergency situation where an aircraft is required to descend as rapidly as possible to a forced landing with little or no power (engine failure) available
  • Additionally, Emergency Approach and Landing improve pilot technique for power off turns, wind drift control, planning, orientation, and division of attention
  • Gliding distance varies by airspeed, altitude, obstructions, wind direction, landing directions, landing surface and gradient, and landing distance required
  • When conducted for training expect the instructor to callout "Simulate Emergency Landing"

WARNING:
All procedures here are GENERALIZED for learning.
Fly the maneuver in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook (POH)
and/or current Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)


C-172S Procedure:

  1. Perform clearing turns
  2. Establish best glide attitude for 68 KIAS
  3. Ensure that the flaps are up
  4. Trim to maintain airspeed
  5. Determine the wind direction
  6. Select a reference point that is near an area where an emergency landing can be made
    • Fields are best, roads may contain powerlines
    • Look for flat, high populated, low obstruction areas
  7. Turn the aircraft toward the landing site
  8. Complete the engine failure during flight checklist:
    • If engine restart is unsuccessful, plan and fly a pattern
    • Establish a high-key point at 1,000' AGL downwind and abeam to the touchdown point
    • Establish a low-key point at 500' AGL on base before the turn to final
  9. Maneuver as necessary to reach the high-key point
    • Not to exceed 60°
    • Clear the engine on the upwind legs every turn
    • Operating the engine at idle speed for prolonged periods may result in excessive engine cooling or spark plug fouling
    • Check engine operation during the glide by "clearing" the engine on every upwind or every 1,000' AGL (to minimize any variation in ground-speed and turn radius) as appropriate

    NOTE:
    When spiraling, the bank angle can be adjusted to vary altitude loss so as to arrive at the high key point at the appropriate altitude. The Cessna 172S loses approx. 800-1000' in a 20° bank - 360° turn; and approximately 4-500' in a 45° bank - 360° turn. If altitude does not permit the use of a high-key point, proceed to a low key point

  10. Turn onto the base leg to be able to conserve or dissipate altitude to reach the desired landing point
  11. At low-key position, set flaps to 10° if desired
  12. Turn final to align with the landing site and, when the landing is assured, set the flaps to 30° if desired
  13. Complete the engine failure during flight checklist to secure the engine
  14. Touchdown slightly tail low and apply brakes as required
    • Fly slightly high with options to slip than too low with no options

    NOTE:
    Unless the approach is made to an airport runway, the simulated emergency approach and landing should be terminated as soon as it can be determined that a safe landing could have been made, or 500' AGL, whichever occurs first

  15. Complete the cruise checklist

Common Errors:

  • Failure to adequately clear the area
  • Poor coordination, resulting in skidding and/or slipping
  • Inadequate wind drift correct
  • Failure to coordinate the controls, so that no increase/decrease in speed results when straight glide is resumed
  • Failure to scan for other traffic
  • Failure to maintain orientation
  • Failure to raise the flaps
  • Improper checklist use
  • Failure to choose and fly by a high and low-key point
  • Flying an approach too high or low

Airman Certification Standards:

References: