Taxiing and Sailing Lesson Plan


  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with safe taxiing and sailing operations, including runway incursion avoidance
  • References: FAA-S-ACS-6, FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM; AC 91-73; Chart Supplements; AIM


  • Research a case study
  • Discuss how the initial conditions developed into an incident/accident/mishap
  • Relate similar personal experience of the same type of incident/accident/mishap


  • Having just started the aircraft and completed the required checklists, the pilot is ready to put the aircraft in motion
  • Taxiing is that movement of an aircraft while on the ground, under its own power
  • Taxiing is accomplished primarily through the use of the rudder and brakes however, pilots are also required to mitigate the impacts of wind
  • Since movement on an airport's surface involves coordination, clearances requirements/coordination are required to operate
  • With the basics in mind, pilots execute Taxi Procedures as they move about an airport's surface area
  • While the movement of the aircraft is our primary concern, there remain some checklist items we must accomplish to prepare/close-out an operation
  • Finally, while taxiing seems straight forward, it can also be an art, with best practices that can help pilots
  • Once your engine has started you must be aware of what you're doing and keep a visual scan, your "flight" has begun
    • It may be required initially to tow the aircraft before engines are started to be safe


Review (quiz):
Case Studies:
Total Ground Time:

Required Materials:

  • Paper, Pen, Marker, Whiteboard

Instructor Actions:

Student Actions:

  • Complete assigned reading (see content above)
  • Ask pertinent questions

Private Pilot - Before Takeoff Check Airman Certification Standards:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the before takeoff check
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23; POH/AFM

Before Takeoff Check Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:
  • PA.II.F.K1:

    Airport information resources including Chart Supplements, airport diagram, and appropriate references
    • PA.II.F.K1a:
      Reasons for checking each item
    • PA.II.F.K1b:
      Detecting malfunctions
    • PA.II.F.K1c:
      Ensuring the airplane is in safe operating condition as recommended by the manufacturer

Before Takeoff Check Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.II.F.R1:

    Division of attention while conducting pre-flight checks
  • PA.II.F.R2:

    Unexpected runway changes by ATC
  • PA.II.F.R3:

    Wake turbulence
  • PA.II.F.R4:

    A powerplant failure during takeoff or other malfunction considering operational factors such as airplane characteristics, runway/takeoff path length, surface conditions, environmental conditions, and obstructions

Before Takeoff Check Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.II.F.S1:

    Review takeoff performance
  • PA.II.F.S2:

    Complete the appropriate checklist
  • PA.II.F.S3:

    Position the airplane appropriately considering other aircraft, vessels, and wind
  • PA.II.F.S4:

    Divide attention inside and outside the flight deck
  • PA.II.F.S5:

    Verify that engine parameters and airplane configuration are suitable



  • Advise students that this lesson will be used as a starting point for the next lesson
  • Assign study materials for the next lesson