Weather Information
Lesson Plan


  • Research a mishap case study:
  • Discuss how the initial conditions developed into an incident/accident/mishap
  • Relate similar personal experience of the same type of incident/accident/mishap


  • Steep turns develop a pilot's skill in flight control smoothness and coordination, an awareness of the airplane's orientation to outside references, division of attention between flight control applications, and the constant need to scan for hazards and other traffic in the area
  • Maximum performance turns are defined as using the fastest rate of turn and shortest radius
  • These turns will cause a much higher stalling speed
    • Limiting load factor determines the maximum bank without stalling


Steep Turns:
Review (quiz):
Case Studies:
Total Ground Time:

Required Materials:

  • Paper, Pen, Marker, Whiteboard

Instructor Actions:

  • Review Airman Certification Standards

Student Actions:

  • Complete assigned reading (see content above)
  • Ask pertinent questions
  • Make a go/no-go decision, as appropriate

Private Pilot - Steep Turns Airman Certification Standards:

  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with steep turns
  • Note: See Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations
  • References: FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3; POH/AFM

Steep Turns Knowledge:

The applicant must demonstrate an understanding of:

Steep Turns Risk Management:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risks, encompassing:
  • PA.V.A.R1:

    Failure to divide attention between airplane control and orientation
  • PA.V.A.R2:

    Collision hazards, to include aircraft and terrain
  • PA.V.A.R3:

    Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT
  • PA.V.A.R4:

    Distractions, improper task management, loss of situational awareness, or disorientation
  • PA.V.A.R5:

    Failure to maintain coordinated flight

Steep Turns Skills:

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
  • PA.V.A.S1:

    Clear the area
  • PA.V.A.S3:

    Roll into a coordinated 360° steep turn with approximately a 45° bank
  • PA.V.A.S4:

    Perform the Task in the opposite direction, as specified by evaluator
  • PA.V.A.S5:

    Maintain the entry altitude ±100 feet, airspeed ±10 knots, bank ±5 degrees, and roll out on the entry heading ±10°



  • Advise students that this lesson will be used as a starting point for the next lesson
  • Assign study materials for the next lesson