Taxiing and Sailing Lesson Plan


  • To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with safe taxiing and sailing operations, including runway incursion avoidance
  • References: FAA-S-ACS-6, FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM; AC 91-73; Chart Supplements; AIM


  • Research a case study
  • Discuss how the initial conditions developed into an incident/accident/mishap
  • Relate similar personal experience of the same type of incident/accident/mishap


  • Having just started the aircraft and completed the required checklists, the pilot is ready to put the aircraft in motion
  • Taxiing is that movement of an aircraft while on the ground, under its own power
  • Taxiing is accomplished primarily through the use of the rudder and brakes however, pilots are also required to mitigate the impacts of wind
  • Since movement on an airport's surface involves coordination, clearances requirements/coordination are required to operate
  • With the basics in mind, pilots execute Taxi Procedures as they move about an airport's surface area
  • While the movement of the aircraft is our primary concern, there remain some checklist items we must accomplish to prepare/close-out an operation
  • Finally, while taxiing seems straight forward, it can also be an art, with best practices that can help pilots
  • Once your engine has started you must be aware of what you're doing and keep a visual scan, your "flight" has begun
    • It may be required initially to tow the aircraft before engines are started to be safe


Review (quiz):
Case Studies:
Total Ground Time:

Required Materials:

  • Paper, Pen, Marker, Whiteboard

Instructor Actions:

Student Actions:

Private Pilot - Taxiing and Sailing Airman Certification Standards:

  • Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with taxiing and sailing operations, including runway incursion avoidance
  • References: AC 91-73; AIM; Chart Supplements; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3, FAA-H-8083-23, FAA-H-8083-25; POH/AFM

Taxiing and Sailing Knowledge:

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
  • PA.II.E.K1:

    Airport information resources, including Chart Supplements, airport diagram, and appropriate references
  • PA.II.E.K2:

    Taxi instructions/clearances
  • PA.II.E.K3:

    Airport/seaplane base markings, signs, and lights
  • PA.II.E.K4:

    Visual indicators for wind
  • PA.II.E.K5:

    Airplane lighting
  • PA.II.E.K6:

    Procedures for:
    • PA.II.E.K6a:
      Appropriate flight deck activities during taxiing or sailing
    • PA.II.E.K6b:
      . Radio communications at towered and nontowered seaplane bases

Taxiing and Sailing Risk Management:

The applicant is able to identify, assess, and mitigate risk associated with:
  • PA.II.E.R1:

    Activities and distractions
  • PA.II.E.R2:

    Porpoising and skipping
  • PA.II.E.R3:

    Low visibility taxi and sailing operations
  • PA.II.E.R4:

    Other aircraft, vessels, and hazards

Taxiing and Sailing Skills:

The applicant exhibits the skill to:
  • PA.II.E.S1:

    Receive and correctly read back clearances/instructions, if applicable
  • PA.II.E.S2:

    Use an appropriate airport diagram or taxi chart, if published
  • PA.II.E.S3:

    Comply with seaplane base/airport/taxiway markings, signals, and signs
  • PA.II.E.S4:

    Depart the dock/mooring buoy or beach/ramp in a safe manner, considering wind, current, traffic, and hazards
  • PA.II.E.S5:

    Complete the appropriate checklist(s)
  • PA.II.E.S6:

    Position the flight controls, flaps, doors, water rudders, and power correctly for the existing conditions to follow the desired course while sailing and to prevent or correct for porpoising and skipping during step taxi
  • PA.II.E.S7:

    Exhibit procedures for steering and maneuvering while maintaining proper situational awareness and desired orientation, path, and position while taxiing using idle, plow, or step taxi technique, as appropriate
  • PA.II.E.S8:

    Plan and follow the most favorable taxi or sailing course for current conditions
  • PA.II.E.S9:

    Abide by right-of-way rules, maintain positive airplane control, proper speed, and separation between other aircraft, vessels, and persons
  • PA.II.E.S10:

    Comply with applicable taxi elements in Task D (taxiing lesson plan) if the practical test is conducted in an amphibious airplane



  • Advise students that this lesson will be used as a starting point for the next lesson
  • Assign study materials for the next lesson