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Other Airspace

Introduction:

Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge

Wildlife & Recreational Areas:

  • Wildlife and Recreational Areas are established due to the high volume of scenic tour flights and/or to protect noise sensitive wildlife [Figure 1]
  • Pilot Advisories on Bird and Other Wildlife Hazards:

    • Many airports advise pilots of other wildlife hazards caused by large animals on the runway through the Chart Supplement U.S. and the NOTAM system
    • Collisions of landing and departing aircraft and animals on the runway are increasing and are not limited to rural airports
    • These accidents have also occurred at several major airports
    • Pilots should exercise extreme caution when warned of the presence of wildlife on and in the vicinity of airports
    • If you observe deer or other large animals in close proximity to movement areas, advise the FSS, tower, or airport management
  • Flights Over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas:

    • The landing of aircraft is prohibited on lands or waters administered by the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or U.S. Forest Service without authorization from the respective agency
    • Exceptions include:
      1. When forced to land due to an emergency beyond the control of the operator;
      2. At officially designated landing sites; or
      3. An approved official business of the Federal Government
    • Pilots are requested to maintain a minimum altitude of 2,000 feet above the surface of the following:
      • National Parks, Monuments, Seashores, Lakeshores, Recreation Areas and Scenic Riverways administered by the National Park Service, National Wildlife Refuges, Big Game Refuges, Game Ranges and Wildlife Ranges administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wilderness and Primitive areas administered by the U.S. Forest Service
    • FAA Advisory Circular AC 91−36, Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Flight Near Noise-Sensitive Areas, defines the surface of a national park area (including parks, forests, primitive areas, wilderness areas, recreational areas, national seashores, national monuments, national lakeshores, and national wildlife refuge and range areas) as: the highest terrain within 2,000 feet laterally of the route of flight, or the upper-most rim of a canyon or valley
    • Federal statutes prohibit certain types of flight activity and/or provide altitude restrictions over designated U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas
    • Federal regulations also prohibit airdrops by parachute or other means of persons, cargo, or objects from aircraft on lands administered by the three agencies without authorization from the respective agency
    • Exceptions include:
      • Emergencies involving the safety of human life; or
      • Threat of serious property loss
  • Wild Life Airspace Boundaries
    Sectional Chart Disclaimer

    Wildlife and Recreational Area Depiction:

    • wildlife and recreational areas are depicted on sectional charts and Terminal Area Charts
    • Sectional Chart Depiction:

      • These sensitive areas are indicated on the sectional with lines of blue dots [Figure 2]
        • This depiction is not located on the sectional legend, but rather on the chart, as applicable
        • Notice the minimum altitude for flyover is requested to be 2,000' AGL
    • Terminal Area Charts:

      • Depicted the same as on a sectional chart
    • The sectional will have brief notes and depictions that indicate restrictions [Figure 3]
      • The Chart Supplement U.S. supplement makes mention of these restrictions as well [Figure 4]
      • A violation could result in stiff fines
    Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge
    Sectional Chart Disclaimer
    Chart Supplement U.S. Airport Restrictions
    Chart Supplement U.S. Airport Restrictions

Terminal Radar Service Area:

  • TRSAs are delimited airspace in which radar and ATC services are made available for pilots under IFR or optionally for VFR traffic
    • In place to maintain aircraft separation
  • The Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA) was originally established as part of the Terminal Radar Program at selected airports
  • Terminal Radar Service Areas were never was subject to the rule-making process and consequently, are not contained in 14 CFR Part 71 nor part Part 91 and not considered part of the airspace classification system
  • Part of the Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA) program was to replace the TRSAs
    • The ARSA requirements became relatively stringent and it was subsequently decided that TRSAs would have to meet ARSA criteria before they would be converted
    • Seeing as they do not fit into any airspace classes they will continue to be a non-part 71 airspace area where participating pilots can receive additional radar services which have been redefined as a TRSA service
  • Often times TRSAs are being replaced with Class Bravo or Class C airspace
  • Terminal Radar Service Area
    Terminal Radar Service Area (TSRA)
  • The primary airport(s) within the TRSA become(s) Class D airspace
  • The remaining portion of the TRSA overlies other controlled airspace, which is normally Class Echo airspace beginning at 700 or 1,200' and established to transition to/from the en-route/terminal environment as dark gray circles that look like Class Bravo airspace [Figure 5]
  • TRSA Participation:

    • Pilots operating under VFR are encouraged (but not required) to contact the radar approach control and avail themselves of the TRSA services
    • See Chapter 4 of the Aeronautical Information Manual, Air Traffic Control, for details and procedures
  • TRSA Airspace Depiction:

    • TRSAs are depicted on VFR sectional and terminal area charts, however, it can be found listed in Chart Supplement U.S.
    • The TRSA itself is depicted with a solid black line and altitudes for each segment
    • The Class D portion is charted with a blue segmented line
  • Radar Sequencing and Separation Service:

    • Implemented at certain terminal locations
    • Service is advertised in the Chart Supplement U.S.
    • Provides separation between all participating VFR and all IFR aircraft operating within the airspace defined as Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA)
    • Pilot participation is urged but not mandatory
    • If an aircraft does not want this service then state "Negative TRSA Service" on initial contact or as appropriate
    • VFR aircraft will be separated from VFR/IFR aircraft by one of the following:
      • 500' vertical separation
      • Visual separation
      • Target resolution (a process to ensure that correlated radar targets do not touch) when using broadband radar systems
    • Participating aircraft must maintain an altitude when assigned, ATC may assign altitudes that do not conform with 91.159 (VFR cruising altitude or flight level)
      • When altitude restriction no longer applies ATC will advise "Resume Appropriate VFR Altitudes"
      • Pilots must then return to appropriate 91.159 altitudes as soon as practicable
    • When not assigned an altitude, the pilot should coordinate with ATC prior to any altitude change
    • Within the TRSA traffic information is observed but unidentified targets will, to the extend possible, be provided
    • Departing aircraft should inform ATC of their intended destination and/or route of flight and proposed cruising altitude
    • ATC will normally advise participating VFR aircraft when leaving the airspace, this does not mean the service has been terminated unless stated so
    • Class C Service: provides, in addition, approved separation between aircraft and sequencing for VFR arrivals to the primary airport
    • Class B Service: provides, in addition, approved separation between aircraft based on IFR, VFR, and/or weight, and sequencing of VFR arrivals to the primary airport(s)

Airport Advisory Area & Services:

  • Airport advisory services are provided at airports without an operating control tower that have certified automated weather reporting via voice capability
    • When there is no control tower in operation and a pilot appears unaware of this fact, inform him/her (NO CONTROL TOWER IN OPERATION)
  • Participation with any advisory service is not mandatory but is highly encouraged to improve safety for everyone operating around busy General Aviation airports
  • When requested, pilots will be provided observed information ("Landing gear appears to be down and in place")
  • There are 2 types depending upon the location of the FSS and communication capabilities:
  • Airport Advisory Communications

    • If a pilot asks for airport advisory services at an airport where the requested service is not available but one of the services is available, pilots will be informed about what service is available, and the appropriate service will be provided
      • "[Airport name] Airport Advisory is not available, [Service] available"
    • At airports with commissioned automated weather with continuous automated voice capability, instruct the pilot to monitor the automated broadcast and advise intentions:
      • "Monitor [Location] automated weather [Frequency]. Advise intentions"
        • When the pilot indicates receipt of automated weather, provide the appropriate non-weather elements
        • If the pilot reports the automated weather is out of service, provide the last reported weather available and the appropriate non-weather elements
    • Advise the pilot that the requested airport advisory/RAIS service is not available. Provide CTAF frequency and/or the automated weather frequency, when available. When not available, issue the last known surface condition and altimeter
      • "[Airport Name] AIRPORT ADVISORY or AIRPORT INFORMATION NOT AVAILABLE. CONTACT [Airport Name] CTAF [Frequency]"
    • During initial contact, if the pilot indicates receipt of automated weather, provide only the appropriate non-weather elements. Do not provide weather information unless specifically requested by the pilot or a special report is transmitted
      • RAIS: Pilot: "Green Bay radio, Cessna 12RG, ten northeast, landing Eau Claire, request airport information, I have the automated weather"
      • FSS: "Cessna 12RG, Eau Claire airport information, your traffic is a Cessna 172 entering downwind and a Convair 660 reported on final, both one minute ago. There is an airport maintenance vehicle"
    • If additional pilots initiate contact a short time after airport advisory services were provided, determine if the new pilot(s) copied the information when it was provided
      • If the new pilot responds in the affirmative, do not repeat the information
      • If the new pilot acknowledges the airport advisory information and then requests specific information, provide only the information requested so as to reduce frequency clutter while insuring that the pilots are aware of the situation as it changes
    • Final Guard is a service provided in conjunction with airport advisory only during periods of significant and fast changing weather conditions that may affect landing and takeoff operations
    • Where AFIS is available, confirm receipt of the current AFIS information if the pilot does not initially state the appropriate AFIS code. Issue the current AFIS information to pilots who are unable to receive the AFIS or pilots that do not have the information
      • "Verify you have information ALFA"
    • If the pilot requests special VFR clearance, provide the appropriate elements and follow the procedures in Chapter 4, Section 5, Special VFR Operations
  • Local Airport Advisory (LAA):

    • Local Airport Advisory (LAA) service is available only in Alaska and is operated within 10 statute miles of an airport where a control tower is not operating but where a FSS is located on the airport
    • At these locations FSS provides LAA service to arriving and departing aircraft
      • Ground-to-air communication on the common traffic advisory frequency (CTAF)
      • Automated weather reporting with voice broadcasting
      • A continuous automated weather data display
      • Other continuous direct reading instruments, or manual observations available to the specialist
    • Final guard will automatically be provided during periods of fast changing weather
    • Final Guard:

      • Begins when the aircraft reports "on final" or "taking the active runway" until the airport reports "on the ground" or "airborne"
      • It is crucial to inform FSS when you are airborne/on deck
      • Wind and altimeters will be given however ATIS must still be monitored
    • Authorized Frequencies:
      • Airport advisory service is provided on the appropriate discrete frequency at non-towered locations
      • Airport advisory service is provided on the tower local control frequency at an airport with a part time tower when that facility is not operating
      • If a pilot calls on another frequency, advisories are issued on the frequency to which the pilot is listening, in addition to the appropriate Airport Advisory frequency
      • Pilots are encouraged to guard the airport advisory frequency or tower local control frequency within a 10 mile radius of the airport
      • FSS: "For further advisory service at [Airport Name], monitor [Frequency] within one zero miles"
  • Remote Airport Information Service (RAIS):

    • Provides short term support for short term special events like small to medium fly-ins and special events by facilities which are not located on the landing airport but have:
      • Communication capability
      • Automated weather reporting available to the pilot at the landing airport
    • FAA policy requires pilots to access the current automated weather prior to requesting any remote ATC services at non-towered airports
    • It is the pilot's responsibility to comply with the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) if landing clearance is required
    • Advertised by NOTAM(D) only
    • The FSS will not have access to a continuous readout of the current winds and altimeter; therefore, RAIS does not include weather and/or Final Guard service
      • However, known traffic, special event instructions, and all other services are provided
    • Airport authority and/or managers should request RAIS support on official letterhead directly with the manager of the FSS that will provide the service at least 60 days in advance
      • Approval authority rests with the FSS manager and is based on workload and resource availability
    • For more information see Aeronautical Information Manual (4-1-9) Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers
    NOTE:
    Current policy, when requesting remote ATC services, requires that a pilot monitor the automated weather broadcast at the landing airport prior to requesting ATC services. The FSS automatically provides Final Guard, when appropriate, during LAA/Remote Airport Advisory (RAA) operations. Final Guard is a value added wind/altimeter monitoring service, which provides an automatic wind and altimeter check during active weather situations when the pilot reports on-final or taking the active runway. During the landing or take-off operation when the winds or altimeter are actively changing the FSS will blind broadcast significant changes when the specialist believes the change might affect the operation. Pilots should acknowledge the first wind/altimeter check but due to cockpit activity no acknowledgment is expected for the blind broadcasts. It is prudent for a pilot to report on-the-ground or airborne to end the service

Military Training Routes:

  • The Military Training Route (MTR) Program is a joint venture by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense (DOD), developed for use by military aircraft to gain and maintain proficiency in tactical "low level" flying
  • These low-level training routes are generally established below 10,000' Mean Sea Level (MSL) for speeds in excess of 250 knots to accommodate both Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
    • Route segments however, may be defined at higher altitudes for purposes of route continuity during descent, climb-out, and mountainous terrain, etc.
  • Routes are identified and charted with a series of letters and numbers to quickly identify route characteristics
  • In order to safely integrate, pilots utilizing MTRs are held to strict standards during the conduct of the route as published in the Flight Information Publications (FLIP)
  • Military Training Routes
    Military Training Routes (MTRs)
  • Route Information:

    • Visual Routes (VR):

      • VR, or VFR routes, are designed to be flown at 1,500' AGL and below
      • Conducted under VFR, except when flight visibility must be 5 Statute Miles or more and flights shall not be conducted below a ceiling of less than 3,000' AGL
      • Pilots departing on IFR clearances to fly VRs are required to file to the fix/radial/distance of entry
      • Pilots transitioning to IFR, upon exiting a VR, are required to have on file a previously filed IFR flight plan from the appropriate fix/radial/distance of their point
      • For VR routes, the nearest flight service station will be notified (255.4 megahertz (MHz)) by the pilot upon entering the route with entry time, number/type aircraft, exit fix, and estimated exit time
      • Pilots of aircraft operating on a VR route will adjust their transponder to code 4000, unless otherwise assigned by ATC
    • Instrument Routes (IR):

      • IR, or IFR routes, are designed to be flown above 1,500' Above Ground Level (AGL)
      • Conducted in accordance with IFR regardless of weather conditions
      • Require a specific Air Traffic Control (ATC) entry clearance prior to entering
      • Pilots shall be responsible for obtaining an IFR ATC exit clearance prior to exiting an IR route
    Military Training Routes
    Area Navigation Chart
    MTRs Depiction
    • Specific route information is contained in the Department of Defense (DOD) Flight Information Publication (FLIP) AP/1B along with additional MTR (slow routes/air refueling routes) information, or through the 56 Day National Airspace Systems Resources (NASR) Subscription from the National Flight Data Center (NFDC)
      • MTRs for particular chart pairs (ex. L1/2, etc.) are alphabetically, then numerically tabulated
      • The tabulation includes MTR type and unique identification and altitude range
    • Route width varies for each MTR and can vary in width from 4 to 16 miles on either side of the charted MTR centerline
      • Route segments with a width of 5 Nautical Mile (NM) or less, both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .02" line
      • Route segments with a width greater than 5 NM, either or both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .035" line
    Military Training Routes
    VFR Navigation Chart
    MTRs Depiction
    • A thorough review of FLIP AP/1B, temporary route advisories, Chart Updating Manual (CHUM), and Chart Updating Manual Supplement (CHUMSUPP) is essential to ensure flight safety and maximum training from each sortie
  • Route Identification:

    • MTRs are identified by their flight rules and segment altitudes associated with arrows that indicate the direction of flight along the route
    • Routes numbered 001 to 099 are shown as IR1 or VR99, eliminating the initial zeros
    • MTRs with no segment above 1,500' AGL shall be identified by four number characters (IR1206/VR1207)
    • MTRs that include one or more segments above 1,500' AGL shall be identified with three number characters (IR206/VR207)
    • Alternate IR/VR routes or route segments are identified by using the basic/principal route designation followed by a letter suffix, e.g., IR008A, VR1007B, etc.
    Military Training Routes
    IFR Enroute Chart MTRs Depiction
  • Route Charting:

    • IFR Enroute Low Altitude Chart:
      • This chart will depict the centerline of all IR routes and all VR routes that accommodate operations above 1,500' Above Ground Level (AGL)
      • MTRs are not shown on inset charts or on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts
    • VFR Sectional Aeronautical Charts/Terminal Area Chart:
      • Depict military training activities such as IR and VR information
      • These charts will depict MTR centerlines in black
    • Area Planning (AP/1B) Chart (DOD Flight Information Publication):
      • This chart is published by the National Geo-spatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) primarily for military users and contains detailed information on both IR and VR routes
      • See ">NGA products for more
    • The designator IR or VR is not repeated when two or more routes are established over the same airspace
      • Example: IR201-205-227
    • Alternate IR/VR routes or route segments are identified by using the basic/principal route designation followed by a letter suffix
      • Example: IR008A, VR1007B
  • Sectional Charts
    Sectional Charts
  • Military Training Route Conduct:

    • Pilots shall familiarize themselves with the route and are responsible for remaining within the route's structure
      • If the aircraft departs the defined route, by exit or upon completion, FAR 91.117d (maximum speed) applies
      • Caution is advised when climbing above the MTR structure as this may place aircraft in close proximity to airway traffic
    • Operations will be conducted at the minimum speed required to accomplish the mission
    • Unless otherwise delineated in an MTR special operating procedure, aircrew shall avoid charted, uncontrolled airports by 3 NM laterally or 1,500' AGL vertically
    • Note the avoidance criteria for airfields and the need to remain clear of published noise-sensitive areas
    • Aircrew shall avoid Class Bravo, Charlie and Delta airspace
    • Aircrew shall minimize disturbance to persons/property on the ground
    • All route entries shall be accomplished at published entry/alternate entry points only
    • All route exits shall be accomplished at published exit/alternate exit points only
  • Flight Information Publications:

      Military Training Explanation
      Military Training Sectional Explanation
    • DOD FLIPs are available for pilot briefings at FSS and many airports
    • Information available includes times of scheduled activity, altitudes in use on each route segment, and actual route width
    • Route width information for IR and VR MTRs is also available in the FLIP AP/1B along with additional MTR (slow routes/air refueling routes) information
    • For the latest information regarding publication availability visit the NGA Web site:
  • Case Studies:

    • NTSB Identification: MIA01FA028B The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be: The failure of the F-16 flight lead pilot and F-16 accident pilot to maintain an adequate visual lookout while maneuvering. Factors contributing to the accident were: the F-16 flight lead pilot's decision to discontinue radar traffic advisory service, the F-16 flight lead pilot's failure to identify a position error in his aircraft's navigational system, the F-16 pilots subsequent inadvertent entry into class C airspace without establishing and maintaining required communications with air traffic control (ATC); and ATC's lack of awareness that there was more than one F-16 aircraft in the formation flight, which reduced the ATC controllers ability to detect and resolve the conflict that resulted in the collision

Parachute Jump Aircraft Area:

  • Parachute Jump Aircraft Areas are sections of airspace set aside to contain jump operations
  • Operations:

    • Pilots of aircraft engaged in parachute jump operations are reminded that all reported altitudes must be with reference to mean sea level, or flight level, as appropriate, to enable ATC to provide meaningful traffic information
    • There is no substitute for alertness while in the vicinity of a jump location, monitor the CTAF and keep your scan
      • It is essential that pilots conducting parachute operations be alert, look for other traffic, and exchange traffic information as recommended by Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers
      • In addition, pilots should avoid releasing parachutes while in an airport traffic pattern when there are other aircraft in that pattern
      • Pilots should make appropriate broadcasts on the designated Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), and monitor that CTAF until all parachute activity has terminated or the aircraft has left the area
      • Prior to commencing a jump operation, the pilot should broadcast the aircraft's altitude and position in relation to the airport, the approximate relative time when the jump will commence and terminate, and listen to the position reports of other aircraft in the area

Temporary Flight Restriction:

  • Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) are issued in order to clear airspace for the purpose of security or safety
  • More specifically, they:
    • Protect persons and property on the surface or in the air from a hazard associated with an incident on the surface;
    • Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft; or
    • Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing and other aircraft above an incident or event which may generate a high degree of public interest
      • This includes VIPs, Space Agency Operations
      • The Notice to Airmen will specify the hazard or condition that requires the imposition of temporary flight restrictions
    • The type of restrictions issued will be kept to a minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement of the necessary objective
  • Issuance:

    • May be issued by Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) via Notice to Airmen (NOTAMs) if enough warning exists
      • Temporary Flight Restrictions are usually not depicted due to the short notice and short duration, but some, like Disney World, will always be published
    • Usually issued 30 days in advance
    • There is an exclusion within the TFR for if you're under ATC control
      • So if you're flying into an area you're not familiar with, get flight following and you are better covered
    • To preclude misunderstanding, the implementing NOTAM will contain specific and formatted information
      • The facility establishing a temporary flight restrictions area will format a NOTAM beginning with the phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS" followed by: the location of the temporary flight restrictions area; the effective period; the area defined in statute miles; the altitudes affected; the FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone number; the reason for the temporary flight restrictions; the agency directing any relief activities and its commercial telephone number; and other information considered appropriate by the issuing authority
  • Disney World Temporary Flight Restriction
    Disney World Temporary Flight Restriction
    Disney World Temporary Flight Restriction
    Disney World Temporary Flight Restriction
  • Imminent Hazards:

    • TFRs issued in relation to imminent hazards protect persons and property in the air or on the surface from an existing or imminent hazard associated with an incident on the surface when the presence of low flying aircraft would magnify, alter, spread, or compound that hazard
    • Established by or through the area manager at the ARTCC having jurisdiction over the area concerned
    • The FAA accepts recommendations for the establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military major command headquarters, regional directors of the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil Defense State Directors, State Governors, or other similar authority
    • The appropriate FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)
    • Situations which warrant the extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) include, but are not limited to:
      • Toxic gas leaks or spills;
      • Flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or property on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft could endanger persons or property in the air;
      • Imminent volcano eruptions which could endanger airborne aircraft and occupants;
      • Nuclear accident or incident; and,
      • Hijackings
    • When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary flight restrictions area will be implemented through the TSA Aviation Command Center
      • The appropriate FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)
    • The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft operations except those specified in the NOTAM:
      • Flight restrictions Matthews, Virginia, effective immediately until 9610211200. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) temporary flight restrictions are in effect. Rescue operations in progress. Only relief aircraft operations under the direction of the Department of Defense are authorized in the airspace at and below 5,000 feet MSL within a 2−nautical−mile radius of Laser AFB, Matthews, Virginia. Commander, Laser AFB, in charge (897) 946−5543 (122.4). Steenson FSS (792) 555−6141 (123.1) is the FAA coordination facility
  • Disaster Relief:

    • Established by or through the area manager at the ARTCC having jurisdiction over the area concerned, TFRs may be issued for the operations of disaster relief
    • Established by or through the area manager at the ARTCC having jurisdiction over the area concerned
    • The FAA accepts recommendations from military commanders serving as regional, subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR) coordinators; by military commanders directing or coordinating air operations associated with disaster relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating organized relief air operations (includes representatives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S. Forest Service, and State aeronautical agencies)
    • Situations which warrant the restrictions associated with 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) include:
      • Forest fires which are being fought by releasing fire retardants from aircraft; and,
      • Aircraft relief activities following a disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.)
    • The following NOTAM example provides a safe area for fire fighting operations:
      • Flight restrictions 25 miles east of Bransome, Idaho, effective immediately until 9601202359 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) temporary flight restrictions are in effect within a 4−nautical−mile radius of the intersection of county roads 564 and 315 at and below 3,500 feet MSL to provide a safe environment for fire fighting aircraft operations. Davis County sheriff's department (792) 555−8122 (122.9) is in charge of on-scene emergency response activities. Glivings FSS (792) 555−1618 (122.2) is the FAA coordination facility
  • Unsafe Congestion:

    • Issued at the direction of the service area office director having oversight of the airspace concerned in order to prevent aircraft above an incident or event which may generate a high degree of public interest
    • 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for events and incidents that would attract an unsafe congestion of sightseeing aircraft
    • Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight restrictions establishment under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or by State, county, or city government entities
    • The amount of airspace needed to protect persons and property or provide a safe environment for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally limited to within 2,000' above the surface and within a 3-nautical-mile radius
    • Incidents occurring within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will normally be handled through existing procedures and should not require the issuance of a temporary flight restrictions NOTAM
    • Temporary flight restrictions affecting airspace outside of the U.S. and its territories and possessions are issued with verbiage excluding that airspace outside of the 12-mile coastal limits
    • The following NOTAM prohibits sightseeing aircraft operations:
      • Flight restrictions Brown, Tennessee, due to olympic activity. Effective 9606181100 UTC until 9607190200 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) temporary flight restrictions are in effect within a 3-NM radius of N355783/W835242 and Volunteer VORTAC 019 degree radial 3.7 DME fix at and below 2,500 feet MSL. Norton FSS (423) 555-6742 (126.6) is the FAA coordination facility
    • The ARTCC nearest the incident site is normally the "coordination facility." When FAA communications assistance is required, the designated ARTCC will function as the primary communications facility for coordination between emergency control authorities and affected aircraft
  • Hawaii Disaster Relief

    • Hawaii disaster relief protects declared national disasters for humanitarian reasons in Hawaii, as determined by the Governor
    • When a NOTAM has been issued in accordance with this section, no person may operate an aircraft within the designated airspace unless:
      • That person has obtained authorization from the official in charge of associated emergency or disaster relief response activities, and is operating the aircraft under the conditions of that authorization;
      • The aircraft is carrying law enforcement officials;
      • The aircraft is carrying persons involved in an emergency or a legitimate scientific purpose;
      • The aircraft is carrying properly accredited news persons, and that prior to entering the area, a flight plan is filed with the appropriate FAA or ATC facility specified in the NOTAM and the operation is conducted in compliance with the conditions and restrictions established by the official in charge of on-scene emergency response activities; or,
    • NOTAMs issued under this section are effective for 90 days or until the national disaster area designation is terminated, whichever comes first, unless terminated by notice or extended by the Administrator at the request of the Governor of the State of Hawaii or the Governor's designee
    • The following NOTAM prohibits all aircraft except those operating under the authorization of the official in charge of associated emergency or disaster relief response activities, aircraft carrying law enforcement officials, aircraft carrying personnel involved in an emergency or legitimate scientific purposes, carrying properly accredited news media, and aircraft operating in accordance with an ATC clearance or instruction:
      • Flight restrictions Kapalua, Hawaii, effective 9605101200 UTC until 9605151500 UTC. Pursuant to 14vCFR Section?91.138 temporary flight restrictions are in effect within a 3-nautical-mile radius of N205778/W1564038 and Maui/OGG/VORTAC 275 degree radial at 14.1-NM. John Doe 808-757-4469 or 122.4 is in charge of the operation. Honolulu/HNL 808-757-4470 (123.6) FSS is the FAA coordination facility
  • Proximity of the President and other parties:

    • VIP NOTAMs protect the president and vice president as well as public figures
    • No person may operate an aircraft over or in the vicinity of an area to be visited or traveled by the President, Vice President, or other public figures contrary to the restrictions established by the Administrator and published in the Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
    • The following NOTAM example prohibits all aircraft:
      • Flight restrictions Stillwater, Oklahoma, June 21, 1996. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.141 aircraft flight operations are prohibited within a 3−nautical−mile radius, below 2000 feet AGL of N360962/W970515 and the Stillwater/SWO/VOR/DME 176 degree radial 3.8−nautical−mile fix from 1400 local time to 1700 local time June 21, 1996, unless otherwise authorized by ATC
  • Space Agency Operations:

    • Provide a safe environment for space agency operations
    • When a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is issued in accordance with this section, no person may operate any aircraft of U.S. registry, or pilot any aircraft under the authority of an airman certificate issued by the Federal Aviation Administration, within areas designated in a NOTAM for space flight operation except when authorized by ATC
    • The following NOTAM example prohibits any aircraft of U.S. registry, or pilot any aircraft under the authority of an airman certificate issued by the FAA:
      • Kennedy space center space operations area effective immediately until 9610152100 UTC. Pursuant to 14 CFR Section 91.143, flight operations conducted by FAA certificated pilots or conducted in aircraft of U.S. registry are prohibited at any altitude from surface to unlimited, within the following area 30-nautical-mile radius of the Melbourne/MLB/VORTAC 010 degree radial 21-nautical-mile fix. St. Petersburg, Florida/PIE/FSS 813-545-1645 (122.2) is the FAA coordination facility and should be contacted for the current status of any airspace associated with the space shuttle operations. This airspace encompasses R2933, R2932, R2931, R2934, R2935, W497A and W158A. Additional warning and restricted areas will be active in conjunction with the operations. Pilots must consult all NOTAMs regarding this operation
  • Notes:

    • The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the "coordination facility." When FAA communications assistance is required, the designated FSS will function as the primary communications facility for coordination between emergency control authorities and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison for the emergency control authorities if adequate communications cannot be established between the designated FSS and the relief organization. For example, the coordination facility may relay authorizations from the on-scene emergency response official in cases where news media aircraft operations are approved at the altitudes used by relief aircraft
    • ATC may authorize operations in a temporary flight restrictions area under its own authority only when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate ARTCC/airport traffic control tower manager will, however, ensure that such authorized flights do not hamper activities or interfere with the event for which restrictions were implemented. However, ATC will not authorize local IFR flights into the temporary flight restrictions area
    • To preclude misunderstanding, the implementing NOTAM will contain specific and formatted information. The facility establishing a temporary flight restrictions area will format a NOTAM beginning with the phrase "FLIGHT RESTRICTIONS" followed by: the location of the temporary flight restrictions area; the effective period; the area defined in statute miles; the altitudes affected; the FAA coordination facility and commercial telephone number; the reason for the temporary flight restrictions; the agency directing any relief activities and its commercial telephone number; and other information considered appropriate by the issuing authority
    Washington D.C. Temporary Flight Restriction
    Washington D.C. Temporary Flight Restriction
  • No person may operate within this airspace unless:

    • Participating in the hazard relief under the official in charge of the scene
    • Law enforcement, event, or legitimate scientific officials are on board
    • Operating under the ATC approved IFR flight plan
    • Operation is conducted directly to or from an airport within the area or is necessitated by the impracticably of the VFR flight above or around the area due to weather, or terrain
      • Notify FSS or ATC facility issuing the TFR
    • The aircraft is carrying properly accredited news representatives and prior to entering the area a flight plan has been filed
      • Must include aircraft identification, type, color
      • Radio communication frequencies to be used
      • Proposed times of entry and exit
      • Names of news media or organization and purpose of flight
      • Any other information requested by ATC
    • Typically not depicted on sectionals
    • When any information indicates that barometric pressure exceeds 31 in-Hg, no person may operate unless a waiver is granted by the Administrator for emergency reasons
  • Disney World TFR Airspace
    Disney World TFR Notice
  • Demonstration events that may cause a TFR:

    • Blue Angels
    • Thunderbirds
    • Golden Knights
    • Olympic Games
    • Annual Tournament of Roses Football Game
    • World Cup Soccer

    • Disney World TFR Airspace
      Disney World TFR Description
    • Major League Baseball All-Star Game
    • World Series
    • Kodak Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
    • Sandia Classic Hang Gliding Competition
    • Indianapolis 500 Mile Race
    • Any other aerial demonstration or sporting event the FAA determines to need a TFR
    • Usually limited to 5 NM radius to an altitude of 17,000' MSL for aircraft, 13,000' MSL for parachute operations
    • Demonstration TFR Events
      Demonstration TFR Events
    • Sporting events usually limited to 3 NM radius and 2,500'
    • Additional information available in https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/#manuals 3-5-3
  • Hazard/Disaster Areas:

    • The FAA will issue a NOTAM designating an area within which temporary flight restrictions apply and specifying the hazard or condition requiring their imposition, whenever he determines it is necessary in order to:
      1. Protect persons and property on the surface or in the air from a hazard associated with an incident on the surface;
      2. Provide a safe environment for the operation of disaster relief aircraft; or
      3. Prevent an unsafe congestion of sightseeing and other aircraft above an incident or event which may generate a high degree of public interest
        • The NOTAM will specify the hazard or condition that requires the imposition of TFRs
    • When a NOTAM has been issued under condition 1 above, no person may operate an aircraft within the designated area unless that aircraft is participating in the hazard relief activities and is being operated under the direction of the official in charge of on scene emergency response activities
    • When a NOTAM has been issued under condition 2 above, no person may operate an aircraft within the designated area unless at least one of the following conditions are met:
      • The aircraft is participating in hazard relief activities and is being operated under the direction of the official in charge of on scene emergency response activities
      • The aircraft is carrying law enforcement officials
      • The aircraft is operating under the ATC approved IFR flight plan
      • The operation is conducted directly to or from an airport within the area, or is necessitated by the impracticability of VFR flight above or around the area due to weather, or terrain; notification is given to the Flight Service Station (FSS) or ATC facility specified in the NOTAM to receive advisories concerning disaster relief aircraft operations; and the operation does not hamper or endanger relief activities and is not conducted for the purpose of observing the disaster
      • The aircraft is carrying properly accredited news representatives, and, prior to entering the area, a flight plan is filed with the appropriate FAA or ATC facility specified in the Notice to Airmen and the operation is conducted above the altitude used by the disaster relief aircraft, unless otherwise authorized by the official in charge of on scene emergency response activities
    • When a NOTAM has been issued under condition 3 above, no person may operate an aircraft within the designated area unless at least one of the following conditions is met:
      • The operation is conducted directly to or from an airport within the area, or is necessitated by the impracticability of VFR flight above or around the area due to weather or terrain, and the operation is not conducted for the purpose of observing the incident or event
      • The aircraft is operating under an ATC approved IFR flight plan
      • The aircraft is carrying incident or event personnel, or law enforcement officials
      • The aircraft is carrying properly accredited news representatives and, prior to entering that area, a flight plan is filed with the appropriate FSS or ATC facility specified in the NOTAM
    • Flight plans filed and notifications made with an FSS or ATC facility under this section shall include the following information:
      • Aircraft identification, type and color
      • Radio communications frequencies to be used
      • Proposed times of entry of, and exit from, the designated area
      • Name of news media or organization and purpose of flight
      • Any other information requested by ATC

Published VFR Routes:

  • Developed for transitioning around, under and through complex airspace (such as class Bravo) developed through a number of FAA and industry initiatives [Figure 1]
  • Frequently used interchangeably, each type of published VFR route serves an operational requirement and posses unique requirements for their use
  • There are three types of routes:
    • VFR Flyways, and their associated Flyway Planning Charts were developed from the recommendations of a National Airspace Review Task Group;
    • VFR Corridors, designed for the passage of uncontrolled traffic through class B airspace areas, and;
    • Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes, designed to accommodate VFR traffic through certain Class B airspace areas such as Seattle, Phoenix, and Los Angeles
  • VFR Flyway Planning Chart
    VFR Flyway Planning Chart
    VFR Flyway Planning Chart
    VFR Flyway Planning Chart

    VFR Flyways:

    • A VFR flyway is defined as a general flight path not defined as a specific course, for use by pilots in planning flights into, out of, through or near complex terminal airspace to avoid class B
    • An ATC clearance is NOT required however, when operating beneath Class B airspace, communications must be established and maintained between your aircraft and any control tower while transiting the Class B, Class C, and Class D surface areas of those airports under Class B airspace
    • VFR Flyways are depicted on the reverse side of VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC), commonly referred to as Class B airspace charts [Figure 1]
      • These charts identify VFR flyways designed to help VFR pilots avoid major controlled traffic flows
      • They may further depict multiple VFR routings throughout the area which may be used as an alternative to flight within Class B airspace
      • The ground references provide a guide for improved visual navigation
      • These routes are not intended to discourage requests for VFR operations within Class B airspace but are designed solely to assist pilots in planning for flights under and around busy Class B airspace without actually entering Class B airspace
    • Remember, suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic
    • The entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath it, may be heavily congested with many different types of aircraft
    • Pilot adherence to VFR rules must be exercised at all times
  • VFR Corridor and Border Crossing Routes, San Diego
    VFR Corridor and Border Crossing Routes, San Diego
    VFR Corridor and Border Crossing Routes, San Diego
    VFR Corridor and Border Crossing Routes, San Diego

    VFR Corridors:

    • Defined as an airspace passage through class B airspace, with defined boundaries both lateral and vertical in which aircraft may operate without an ATC clearance or communication with air traffic control
    • These corridors are, in effect, a "hole" through Class B airspace [Figure 2]
      • A classic example would be the corridor through the Los Angeles Class B airspace, which has been subsequently changed to a Special Flight Rules Area (SFRA)
    • A corridor is surrounded on all sides by Class B airspace and does not extend down to the surface like a VFR Flyway
    • Because of their finite lateral and vertical limits, and the volume of VFR traffic using a corridor, extreme caution and vigilance must be exercised
    • Due to their complexity and traffic requirements inside of Class Bravo airspace, it has not been possible to incorporate VFR corridors in the development or modification of Class B airspace in recent years
  • VFR Transition Route
    VFR Transition Route

    Class B Airspace VFR Transition Routes:

    • Defined as a specific flight course depicted on a TAC for transiting a specific Class B airspace designed to accommodate VFR traffic through certain class B airspace
    • Routes include specific ATC assigned altitudes as per a clearance which must be received prior to entering the route
    • These routes are designed to show the pilot where to position the aircraft outside of, or clear of, the Class B airspace where an ATC clearance can normally be expected with minimal or no delay [Figure 3]
    • Until ATC authorization is received, pilots must remain clear of Class B airspace
    • On initial contact, pilots should advise ATC of their position, altitude, route name desired, and direction of flight
    • After a clearance is received, pilots must fly the route as depicted and, most importantly, adhere to ATC instructions

Air Defense Identification Zone:

  • national security in the control of air traffic is governed by 14 CFR Part 99
  • An Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) is an area of airspace in the vicinity of U.S. boundaries, over land or water, in which the ready identification, location, and control of all aircraft (except Department of Defense and law enforcement aircraft) is required in the interest of national security
    • All aircraft must meet certain requirements to facilitate early identification when operating into, within, and across an ADIZ, as described in 14 CFR 99
  • The different types of ADIZ are areas of airspace over land or water (domestic/coastal), extends upward from the surface, within which the ready identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required
  • ADIZ dimensions are depicted on aeronautical charts for easy of identification
  • Operations are permitted within these areas provided certain requirements are met (with some exception)
  • The location and operations within this airspace must be understood as violations can result in consequences for the pilot
  • AeroNav ADIZ Sectional Legend
    AeroNav ADIZ Sectional Legend
  • National Security:

    • All aircraft entering domestic U.S. airspace from points outside must provide for identification prior to entry
    • National security in the control of air traffic is governed by 14 CFR Part 99
    • Except when applicable under 14 CFR Section 99.7, 14 CFR Part 99 does not apply to aircraft operations:
      • Within the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia, or within the State of Alaska, and remains within 10 miles of the point of departure;
      • Over any island, or within three nautical miles of the coastline of any island, in the Hawaii ADIZ; or
      • Associated with any ADIZ other than the Contiguous U.S. ADIZ, when the aircraft true airspeed is less than 180 knots
    • Authorizations to deviate from the requirements of Part 99 may also be granted by the ARTCC, on a local basis, for some operations associated with an ADIZ
    • An air filed VFR Flight Plan makes an aircraft subject to interception for positive identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are, therefore, urged to file the required DVFR flight plan either in person or by telephone prior to departure
    • Special Security Instructions:
      • Each person operating an aircraft in an ADIZ or Defense Area must, in addition to the applicable rules of part 99, comply with special security instructions issued by the Administrator in the interest of national security, pursuant to agreement between the FAA and the Department of Defense, or between the FAA and a U.S. Federal security or intelligence agency
      • Defense Area means any airspace of the contiguous United States that is not an ADIZ in which the control of aircraft is required for reasons of national security
    • Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic (ESCAT)
      • During defense emergency or air defense emergency conditions, additional special security instructions may be issued in accordance with 32 CFR 245 Plan for the Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic (ESCAT)
      • Under the provisions of 32 CFR 245, the military will direct the action to be taken in regard to landing, grounding, diversion, or dispersal of aircraft and the control of air navigation aids in the defense of the U.S. during emergency conditions
      • At the time a portion or all of ESCAT is implemented, ATC facilities will broadcast appropriate instructions received from the Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) over available ATC frequencies. Depending on instructions received from the ATCSCC, VFR flights may be directed to land at the nearest available airport, and IFR flights will be expected to proceed as directed by ATC
      • Pilots on the ground may be required to file a flight plan and obtain an approval (through FAA) prior to conducting flight operation
      • In view of the above, all pilots should monitor an ATC or FSS frequency at all times while conducting flight operations
  • National Security Requirements:

    • Pursuant to 14 CFR 99.7, Special Security Instructions, each person operating an aircraft in an Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) or Defense Area must, in addition to the applicable rules of Part 99, comply with special security instructions issued by the FAA Administrator in the interest of national security, pursuant to agreement between the FAA and the Department of Defense (DOD), or between the FAA and a U.S. Federal security or intelligence agency
    • In addition to the requirements prescribed in this section, national security requirements for aircraft operations to or from, within, or transiting U.S. territorial airspace are in effect pursuant to 14 CFR 99.7; 49 United States Code (USC) 40103, Sovereignty and Use of Airspace; and 49 USC 41703, Navigation of Foreign Civil Aircraft. Aircraft operations to or from, within, or transiting U.S. territorial airspace must also comply with all other applicable regulations published in 14 CFR
    • Due to increased security measures in place at many areas, pilots must become familiar with all information pertaining to the flight as part of preflight action
      • Pilots are responsible to comply with all appropriate Temporary Flight Restrictions and NOTAMs during flight planning
      • In addition, NOTAMs may be issued for National Security Areas (NSA) that temporarily prohibit flight operations
    • Pilots of aircraft that do not adhere to the procedures in the national security requirements for aircraft operations may be denied flight entry, intercepted, and/or detained and interviewed by federal, state, or local law enforcement or other government personnel
  • Types of Air Defense Identification Zones:

    • There are several types of Air Defense Identification Zones
    • Their names generally explain the purpose of the particular ADIZ however, its more important you recognize them all as general subsets of the important category that is an ADIZ
    • Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone:

      • An ADIZ within the United States along an international boundary of the United States
    • Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone:

      • An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the United States
    • Distant Early Warning Identification Zone (DEWIZ):

      • An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the State of Alaska
    • Land−Based Air Defense Identification Zone:

      • An ADIZ over U.S. metropolitan areas, which is activated and deactivated as needed, with dimensions, activation dates and other relevant information disseminated via NOTAM
  • ADIZ Dimensions:

    • ADIZ Dimensions can be determine by visually looking at a map, but more precisely, by referencing FAR 99 Subpart B [Figure 21]
  • ADIZ Depiction:

  • ADIZ Sectional Legend
    ADIZ Sectional Legend
  • ADIZ Operational Requirements:

    • Flight Plan:

      • Except as outlined below operations into, within, or from a departure point within an ADIZ require the person files, activates, and closes a flight plan with the appropriate aeronautical facility (FSS), or is otherwise authorized by air traffic control as follows:
        • Pilots must file an Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plan or file a Defense Visual Flight Rules (DVFR) containing the time and point of ADIZ penetration
        • The pilot must activate the DVFR flight plan with U.S. Flight Service and set the aircraft transponder to the assigned discrete beacon code prior to entering the ADIZ
        • The IFR or DVFR aircraft must depart within five minutes of the estimated departure time contained in the flight plan
          • If the airport of departure within the Alaskan ADIZ has no facility for filing a flight plan, the flight plan must be filed immediately after takeoff or when within range of an appropriate aeronautical facility
        • State aircraft (U.S. or foreign) planning to operate through an ADIZ should enter ICAO Code M in Item 8 of the flight plan to assist in identification of the aircraft as a state aircraft
      • The estimated time of ADIZ penetration must be filed with the facility at least 15 minutes prior to penetration of the ADIZ except in Alaska which only requires a report prior to entry
      • ICAO VFR flight plans must include in the transmitted line 18 "other information" section: DVFR/estimated United States ADIZ penetration at time (UTC) and estimated point of penetration (latitude/longitude or fix-radial-distance)
    • Two-way Radio:

      • A person who operates a civil aircraft into an ADIZ must have a functioning two-way radio, and the pilot must maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate aeronautical facility's frequency
        • The appropriate aeronautical facility can be found by finding the ARTCC frequency for the area you're operating on any aeronautical chart
      • If the pilot operating an aircraft under DVFR in an ADIZ cannot maintain two-way radio communications, the pilot may proceed, in accordance with original DVFR flight plan, or land as soon as practicable
        • The pilot must report the radio failure to an appropriate aeronautical facility as soon as possible
      • If a pilot operating an aircraft under IFR in an ADIZ cannot maintain two-way radio communications, the pilot must proceed in accordance with FAR 91.185 of this chapter
    • Transponder Requirements:

      • Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each aircraft conducting operations into, within, or across the Contiguous U.S. ADIZ must be equipped with an operable radar beacon transponder having altitude reporting capability, and that transponder must be turned on and set to reply on the appropriate code or as assigned by ATC. (See 14 CFR 99.13, Transponder−On Requirements, for additional information)
        • Balloons, gliders and aircraft not equipped with an engine driven electrical system are excepted from this requirement
      • Normal squawk code for VFR flight will remain at 1200, unless otherwise assigned
    • Position Reporting:

      • IFR flight in controlled airspace:

        • The pilot must maintain a continuous watch on the appropriate frequency and report the time and altitude of passing each designated reporting point or those reporting points specified or requested by ATC, except that while the aircraft is under radar control, only the passing of those reporting points specifically requested by ATC need be reported. (See Normal IFR position reporting) for more information
      • DVFR flights and IFR flights in uncontrolled airspace:

        • The time, position, and altitude at which the aircraft passed the last reporting point before penetration and the estimated time of arrival over the next appropriate reporting point along the flight route;
        • If there is no appropriate reporting point along the flight route, the pilot reports at least 15 minutes before penetration: the estimated time, position, and altitude at which the pilot will penetrate; or
        • If the departure airport is within an ADIZ or so close to the ADIZ boundary that it prevents the pilot from complying with transponder/radio/flight plan requirements above, the pilot must report immediately after departure: the time of departure, the altitude, and the estimated time of arrival over the first reporting point along the flight route
    • Foreign civil aircraft:

      • If the pilot of a foreign civil aircraft that intends to enter the U.S. through an ADIZ cannot comply with position reporting requirements, as applicable, the pilot must report the position of the aircraft to the appropriate aeronautical facility not less than 1 hour and not more than 2 hours average direct cruising distance from the U.S.
    • Land−Based ADIZ:

      • Land−Based ADIZ are activated and deactivated over U.S. metropolitan areas as needed, with dimensions, activation dates and other relevant information disseminated via NOTAM
        • Pilots unable to comply with all NOTAM requirements must remain clear of Land−Based ADIZ
        • Pilots entering a Land−Based ADIZ without authorization or who fail to follow all requirements risk interception by military fighter aircraft
    • If operating under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), you do not need to file anything other than an IFR Flight Plan
  • Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone
    Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone
  • Exceptions:

    • Except when applicable under 14 CFR Section 99.7, 14 CFR Part 99 does not apply to aircraft operations:
      • Within the 48 contiguous States or within the State of Alaska, on a flight which remains within 10 NM of the point of departure;
      • Operating at true airspeed of less than 180 knots in the Hawaii ADIZ or over any island, or within 12 NM of the coastline of any island, in the Hawaii ADIZ;
      • Operating at true airspeed of less than 180 knots in the Alaska ADIZ while the pilot maintains a continuous listening watch on the appropriate frequency; or
      • Operating at true airspeed of less than 180 knots in the Guam ADIZ
    • Authorizations to deviate from the requirements of Part 99 may also be granted by the ARTCC, on a local basis, for some operations associated with an ADIZ
    • An airfiled VFR Flight Plan makes an aircraft subject to interception for positive identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are, therefore, urged to file the required DVFR flight plan either in person or by telephone prior to departure
    • Special Security Instructions:
      • During defense emergency or air defense emergency conditions, additional special security instructions may be issued in accordance with the Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic (ESCAT) Plan
      • Under the provisions of the ESCAT Plan, the military will direct the action to be taken in regard to landing, grounding, diversion, or dispersal of aircraft and the control of air navigation aids in the defense of the U.S. during emergency conditions
      • At the time a portion or all of ESCAT is implemented, ATC facilities will broadcast appropriate instructions received from theAir Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) over available ATC frequencies. Depending on instructions received from the ATCSCC, VFR flights may be directed to land at the nearest available airport, and IFR flights will be expected to proceed as directed by ATC
      • Pilots on the ground may be required to file a flight plan and obtain an approval (through FAA) prior to conducting flight operation
      • In view of the above, all pilots should guard an ATC or FSS frequency at all times while conducting flight operations
    • An FAA air route traffic control center (ARTCC) may exempt certain aircraft operations on a local basis in concurrence with the DOD or pursuant to an agreement with a U.S. Federal security or intelligence agency:
      • Aircraft operations that are conducted wholly within the boundaries of an ADIZ and are not currently significant to the air defense system
      • Aircraft operations conducted in accordance with special procedures prescribed by a U.S. military authority, or a U.S. Federal security or intelligence agency concerned
    • A VFR flight plan filed inflight makes an aircraft subject to interception for positive identification when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are therefore urged to file the required DVFR flight plan either in person or by telephone prior to departure when able
  • Air Defense Identification Zone Boundaries Designated Mountainous Areas
    Air Defense Identification Zone Boundaries Designated Mountainous Areas
  • Violation of ADIZ Airspace:

  • Advance Passenger Information System (APIS):

    • The Electronic Advance Passenger Information System (eAPIS) is a Web-based interface designed by CBP, for international travel into and out of the U.S. See the CBP online web-based training for additional information
    • The main objective of this program is to obtain a passenger and crew manifest for every aircraft entering or departing the U.S.
    • The information must be received by the CBP no less than 60 minutes prior to takeoff for flights departing from or arriving in the U.S.
    • APIS will take the place of Customs Form 708; however, revenue flights are required to fill out Form 7507 (General Declaration). Each person on an inbound flight will have to submit Form 6059B (individual declaration card)
    • The U.S. CBP Guide for Private Flyers (PDF) is available online. It contains information on current CBP policies, regulations, and requirements as well as links to pertinent information for the international pilot
  • Civil Aircraft Operations To or From U.S. Territorial Airspace:

    • Civil aircraft, except as described below, are authorized to operate to or from U.S. territorial airspace if in compliance with all of the following conditions:
      • File and are on an active flight plan (IFR, VFR, or DVFR);
      • Are equipped with an operational transponder with altitude reporting capability, and continuously squawk an ATC assigned transponder code;
      • Maintain two-way radio communications with ATC;
      • Comply with all other applicable ADIZ requirements and any other national security requirements
      • Comply with all applicable U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) requirements, including Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) requirements (see subparagraph 5−6−5c below for CBP APIS information), in accordance with 19 CFR Part 122, Air Commerce Regulations; and
      • Are in receipt of, and are operating in accordance with, an FAA routing authorization if the aircraft is registered in a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country or is operating with the ICAO three letter designator (3LD) of a company in a country listed as a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country, unless the operator holds valid FAA Part 129 operations specifications. VFR and DVFR flight operations are prohibited for any aircraft requiring an FAA routing authorization. (See paragraph 5−6−11 for FAA routing authorization information)
    • Civil aircraft registered in the U.S., Canada, or Mexico with a maximum certificated takeoff gross weight of 100,309 pounds (45,500 kgs) or less that are operating without an operational transponder, and/or the ability to maintain two-way radio communications with ATC, are authorized to operate to or from U.S. territorial airspace over Alaska if in compliance with all of the following conditions:
      • Depart and land at an airport within the U.S. or Canada;
      • Enter or exit U.S. territorial airspace over Alaska north of the fifty-fourth parallel;
      • File and are on an active flight plan;
      • Comply with all other applicable ADIZ requirements and any other national security requirements
      • Squawk 1200 if VFR and equipped with a transponder; and
      • Comply with all applicable U.S. CBP requirements, including Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) requirements (see subparagraph 5−6−5c below for CBP APIS information), in accordance with 19 CFR Part 122, Air Commerce Regulations
    • CBP APIS Information. Information about U.S. CBP APIS requirements is available at http://www.cbp.gov
  • Civil Aircraft Operations Within U.S. Territorial Airspace:

    • Civil aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff gross weight less than or equal to 100,309 pounds (45,500 kgs) are authorized to operate within U.S. territorial airspace in accordance with all applicable regulations and VFR in airport traffic pattern areas of U.S. airports near the U.S. border, except as below
    • Civil aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff gross weight less than or equal to 100,309 pounds (45,500 kgs) and registered in a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country or operating with the ICAO 3LD of a company in a country listed as a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country, unless the operator holds valid FAA Part 129 operations specifications, must operate within U.S. territorial airspace in accordance with the same requirements as civil aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff gross weight greater than 100,309 pounds (45,500 kgs)
    • Civil aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff gross weight greater than 100,309 pounds (45,500 kgs) are authorized to operate within U.S. territorial airspace if in compliance with all of the following conditions:
      • File and are on an active flight plan (IFR or VFR);
      • Equipped with an operational transponder with altitude reporting capability, and continuously squawk an ATC assigned transponder code;
      • Maintain two-way radio communications with ATC;
      • Aircraft not registered in the U.S. must operate under an approved Transportation Security Administration (TSA) aviation security program (see paragraph 5−6−10 for TSA aviation security program information) or in accordance with an FAA/TSA airspace waiver (see paragraph 5−6−9 for FAA/TSA airspace waiver information), except as authorized in 5−6−6c6. below;
      • Are in receipt of, and are operating in accordance with an FAA routing authorization and an FAA/TSA airspace waiver if the aircraft is registered in a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country or is operating with the ICAO 3LD of a company in a country listed as a U.S. State Department-designated special interest country, unless the operator holds valid FAA Part 129 operations specifications. VFR and DVFR flight operations are prohibited for any aircraft requiring an FAA routing authorization. (See paragraph 5−6−11 for FAA routing authorization information.); and
        • Aircraft not registered in the U.S., when conducting post-maintenance, manufacturer, production, or acceptance flight test operations, are exempt from these requirements if all of the following requirements are met:
          • A U.S. company must have operational control of the aircraft;
          • An FAA−certificated pilot must serve as pilot in command;
          • Only crewmembers are permitted onboard the aircraft; and
          • "Maintenance Flight" is included in the remarks section of the flight plan
Special Flight Rules Area Boundary
Special Flight Rules Area Boundary

Special Air Traffic Rules (SATR) and Special Flight Rules Area (SFRA):

  • The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) prescribes special air traffic rules for aircraft operating within the boundaries of certain designated airspace
  • These areas are listed in 14 CFR Part 93 and can be found throughout the NAS
  • Procedures, nature of operations, configuration, size, and density of traffic vary among the identified areas
  • Special Flight Rules Area:

    • Airspace of defined dimensions, above land areas or territorial waters, within which the flight of aircraft is subject to the rules set forth in 14 CFR Part 93, unless otherwise authorized by air traffic control
    • Not all areas listed in 14 CFR Part 93 are designated SFRA, but special air traffic rules apply to all areas described in 14 CFR Part 93
    • Reference: 14 CFR Part 93, Special Air Traffic Rules FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para 9−2−10, Special Air Traffic Rules (SATR) and Special Flight Rules Area (SFRA), PCG - Special Air Traffic Rules (SATR)
  • Participation:

    • Each person operating an aircraft to, from, or within airspace designated as a SATR area or SFRA must adhere to the special air traffic rules set forth in 14 CFR Part 93, as applicable, unless otherwise authorized or required by ATC
  • Charting:

    • SFRAs are depicted on VFR sectional, terminal area, and helicopter route charts
  • Additional information and resources regarding SFRA, including procedures for flight in individual areas, may be found on the FAA Safety website at www.faasafety.gov

Weather Reconnaissance Area:

  • Hurricane Hunters from the United States Air Force Reserve 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (WRS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) operate weather reconnaissance/research aircraft missions, in support of the National Hurricane Operations Plan (NHOP), to gather meteorological data on hurricanes and tropical cyclones
    • 53rd WRS and NOAA AOC aircraft normally conduct these missions in airspace identified in a published WRA Notice to Airmen (NOTAM)
  • Airspace with defined dimensions and published by a NOTAM, which is established to support weather reconnaissance/research flights
    • ATC services are not provided within WRAs
    • Only participating weather reconnaissance/research aircraft from the 53rd WRS and NOAA AOC are permitted to operate within a WRA. A WRA may only be established in airspace within U. S. Flight Information Regions (FIR) outside of U. S. territorial airspace
  • A published WRA NOTAM describes the airspace dimensions of the WRA and the expected activities within the WRA
    • WRAs may border adjacent foreign FIRs, but are wholly contained within U.S. FIRs
    • As ATC services are not provided within a WRA, non-participating aircraft should avoid WRAs, and IFR aircraft should expect to be rerouted to avoid WRAs

Conclusion:

  • Participation within TRSAs is voluntary on the part of the pilot
  • When operating in wildlife and recreational areas, be mindful of bird hazards in addition to other aircraft
  • It is not mandatory that pilots participate in the Airport Advisory programs
  • Participation enhances safety for everyone operating around busy GA airports; therefore, everyone is encouraged to participate and provide feedback that will help improve the program
  • Airport advisory service personnel maintains charts depicting runways, local taxi routes, intersection takeoff information, airport traffic patterns, and instrument approach procedures for the location(s) served
  • National security depends largely on the deterrent effect of our airborne military forces
  • To be proficient, the military services must train in a wide range of airborne tactics
  • MTRs require maneuvers and speeds which occasionally make the see-and-avoid aspect of flight more difficult, requiring increased vigilance
  • Nonparticipating aircraft are not prohibited from flying within an MTR; however, extreme vigilance should be exercised when conducting flight through or near these routes
  • When requesting MTR information, pilots should contact a Flight Service Station (FSS) with their position, route of flight, and destination in order to reduce frequency congestion and permit the FSS specialist to identify the MTR which could be a factor
    • If concerned with a particular route, pilots should contact FSS within 100 NM of that MTR to obtain current information or route usage in their vicinity
  • Details contained in 14 CFR Part 105 and tabulated in the Chart Supplement U.S.
    • Times of operation are local, and MSL altitudes are listed unless otherwise specified
  • No person may make a parachute jump, and no pilot-in-command may allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft, in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the airspace (See 14 CFR Part 105)
  • The Federal Aviation Regulations are explicit as to what operations are prohibited, restricted, or allowed in a temporary flight restrictions area
  • Pilots are responsible to comply with 14 CFR Sections 91.137, 91.138, 91.141 and 91.143 when conducting flight in an area where a temporary flight restrictions area is in effect, and should check appropriate NOTAMs during flight planning in accordance with FAR 91.103
  • TFRs are published on the Federal Aviation Administration website at http://tfr.faa.gov/tfr2/list.html
  • It is very important to remember that these suggested routes are not sterile of other traffic
  • The entire Class B airspace, and the airspace underneath it, may be heavily congested with many different types of aircraft
  • Pilots of aircraft entering the United States through an ADIZ are required to comply with the provisions of 14 CFR Sections 99.17 and 99.19
  • Note that ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan requirements for civil aircraft operations are specified in 14 CFR Part 99
  • Operators may submit requests for FAA/TSA airspace waivers at https://waivers.faa.gov by selecting "international" as the waiver type
  • Never forget to check NOTAMS, more specifically, international NOTAMS
  • And finally as always, don't forget to close any flight plan you open!

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